INTRODUCTION TO

Health Physics

Notice Medicine is an ever-changing science. As new research and clinical experience broaden our knowledge, changes in treatment and drug therapy are required. The authors and the publisher of this work have checked with sources believed to be reliable in their efforts to provide information that is complete and generally in accord with the standards accepted at the time of publication. However, in view of the possibility of human error or changes in medical sciences, neither the authors nor the publisher nor any other party who has been involved in the preparation or publication of this work warrants that the information contained herein is in every respect accurate or complete, and they disclaim all responsibility for any errors or omissions or for the results obtained from use of the information contained in this work. Readers are encouraged to conﬁrm the information contained herein with other sources. For example and in particular, readers are advised to check the product information sheet included in the package of each drug they plan to administer to be certain that the information contained in this work is accurate and that changes have not been made in the recommended dose or in the contraindications for administration. This recommendation is of particular importance in connection with new or infrequently used drugs.

INTRODUCTION TO

Health Physics FOURTH EDITION

Herman Cember, PhD Professor Emeritus Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois

Thomas E. Johnson, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado

New York

Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto

Milan

Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. ISBN: 978-0-07-164323-8 MHID: 0-07-164323-0 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: ISBN: 978-0-07-142308-3, MHID: 0-07-142308-7. All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps. McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. To contact a representative please visit the Contact Us page at www.mhprofessional.com. TERMS OF USE This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill’s prior co sent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms. THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS.” McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circ*mstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise.

To my wife, Sylvia and to the memory of Dr. Elda E. Anderson and Dr. Thomas Parran

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CONTENTS Preface/ XI 1. Introduction/1 2. Review of Physical Principles/3 Mechanics/3 Relativistic Effects/6 Electricity/13 Energy Transfer/26 Quantum Theory/44 Summary/51

3. Atomic and Nuclear Structure/59 Atomic Structure/59 The Nucleus/73 Summary/81

4. Radiation Sources/85 Radioactivity/85 Transformation Mechanisms/85 Transformation Kinetics/98 Activity/103 Naturally Occurring Radiation/109 Serial Transformation/117 Summary/134

5. Interaction of Radiation with Matter/143 Beta Particles/143 Alpha Particles/160 Gamma Rays/165 Neutrons/181 Summary/194 vii

viii

Contents

6. Radiation Dosimetry/203 Units/203 External Exposure/205 Internally Deposited Radionuclides/233 External Exposure: Neutrons/266 Summary/270

7. Biological Basis for Radiation Safety/279 Dose–Response Characteristics/280 The Physiological Basis for Internal Dosimetry/285 Radiation Effects: Deterministic/307 Radiation Effects: Stochastic/315 Radiation-Weighted Dose Units: The Sievert and The Rem/331 Summary/332

8. Radiation Safety Guides/337 Organizations That Set Standards/337 Philosophy of Radiation Safety/342 ICRP Basic Radiation Safety Criteria/347 United States Nuclear Regulatory Program/407 Ecological Radiation Safety/421 Summary/421

9. Health Physics Instrumentation/427 Radiation Detectors/427 Particle-Counting Instruments/428 Dose-Measuring Instruments/447 Neutron Measurements/465 Calibration/477 Counting Statistics/485 Summary/505

10. External Radiation Safety/513 Basic Principles/513 Optimization/571 Summary/574

11.

Internal Radiation Safety/583 Internal Radiation/583 Principles of Control/584

Contents

Surface Contamination Limits/592 Waste Management/595 Assessment of Hazard/618 Optimization/627 Summary/630

12. Criticality/639 Criticality Hazard/639 Nuclear Fission/639 Criticality/645 Nuclear Reactor/651 Criticality Control/658 Summary/661

13. Evaluation of Radiation Safety Measures/667 Medical Surveillance/667 Estimation of Internally Deposited Radioactivity/668 Individual Monitoring/680 Radiation and Contamination Surveys/681 Air Sampling/685 Continuous Environmental Monitoring/706 Combined Exposures/706 Source Control/708 Summary/709

14. Nonionizing Radiation Safety/721 Units/722 UV Light/723 Lasers/728 Radiofrequency Radiation and Microwaves/759 Principles of Radiation Safety/792 Summary/794

Appendix A

Values of Some Useful Constants/803

Appendix B Table of the Elements/805 Appendix C The Reference Person Overall Speciﬁcations/809 Appendix D Source in Bladder Contents/815 Appendix E Total Mass Attenuation Coefﬁcients, μ/ρ, cm 2/g/851 Appendix F

Mass Energy Absorption Coefﬁcients, μa /ρ, cm 2/g/853

Answers To Problems/855 Index/861

ix

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PREFACE The practice of radiation safety is a continually evolving activity. Many of the changes in the practice of ionizing and nonionizing radiation safety, in calculation methodology, and in the methods for demonstrating compliance with the safety standards that have occurred since the publication of the previous edition of Introduction to Health Physics are incorporated in the fourth edition. Since their inception in 1928, the Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection have formed the scientiﬁc basis for ionizing radiation safety standards issued by regulatory authorities throughout the world. Generally, earlier recommendations were successively more restrictive than the previous ones. The 2006 recommendations, however, are essentially the same as the previous recommendations made in 1990. The main difference is that the 2006 recommendations are made on the basis of the increased knowledge acquired since 1990. This is not surprising, since no harmful radiation effects have been observed among the population of radiation workers whose doses had been within the previous standards. The new recommendations continued to stress that all unnecessary exposure be avoided and that all exposures should be kept as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. A reasonable question, therefore, that is raised by the ICRP recommendations is “How safe is safe?” This question lies in the ﬁeld that Dr. Alvin Weinberg, the late director of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, called transscience. Transscientiﬁc questions have a scientiﬁc basis, but they cannot be answered by science alone. Safety is a subjective concept that can be interpreted only within the context of its application. Policy decisions regarding matters of health and safety should be made in the context of public health. In the practice of public health, we ﬁnd that numerous diseases and threats to health are always present in every community. The cost of controlling these threats to health is borne by the community. Since the community has limited resources, it must set priorities regarding which of the many real or perceived health threats to control. One of the techniques for quantifying the likelihood of the expression of a potential risk is called quantitative risk assessment. In the area of radiation safety, this usually deals with two main risks: (1) failure of a large technological system, such as a nuclear power plant, and (2) the long-term effects of low-level radiation. The results of quantitative risk assessment are often perceived as the determination of a real threat to life or limb, no matter how small the calculated chance of occurrence. However, quantitative risk assessment is a calculation that almost always assumes the most pessimistic, and in many cases entirely unrealistic, values for parameters whose magnitudes include several different uncertainties. In addition to statistical uncertainties, for example, we must choose among several different equally reasonable models to which to apply the statistical data. One of the purposes of this edition is xi

to provide the technical background needed to understand the calculation and use of quantitative risk assessment for radiation hazards in order to help us to allocate our limited resources. Although it has been a number of years since the ICRP recommended that health physics quantities be expressed in the meter–kilogram–second (MKS) units of the SI system rather than the traditional units based on the centimeter–gram–second (cgs) system, the change to the SI units has not yet been universally implemented. For example, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission continues to use the traditional system of units in its regulations. For this reason, this edition continues to use both systems, with one or the other equivalent quantity given in parentheses. I wish to thank the many persons, too numerous to mention by name, for their helpful suggestions. I also owe a debt of gratitude to my former student and now colleague, Thomas Johnson, for his authorship of Chapter 14 and for checking the text of the other chapters, and to his wife, Melissa, for giving up her time with her husband so that he could contribute to this book. Herman Cember

INTRODUCTION TO

Health Physics

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1 INTRODUCTION Health physics, radiological health, or radiological engineering are synonymous terms for that area of public health and environmental health engineering that deals with the safe use of ionizing and nonionizing radiation in order to prevent harmful effects of the radiation to individuals, to population groups, and to the biosphere. The health physicist is responsible for safety aspects in the design of processes, equipment, and facilities utilizing radiation sources and for the safe disposal of radioactive waste so that radiation exposure to personnel will be minimized and will at all times be within acceptable limits; he or she must keep personnel and the environment under constant surveillance in order to ascertain that these designs are indeed effective. If control measures are found to be ineffective or if they break down, the health physicist must be able to evaluate the degree of hazard and make recommendations regarding remedial action. Public policy vis-`a-vis radiation safety is based on political, economic, moral, and ethical considerations as well as on scientiﬁc and engineering principles. This textbook deals only with the scientiﬁc and engineering bases for the practice of health physics. The scientiﬁc and engineering aspects of health physics are concerned mainly with (1) the physical measurements of different types of radiation and radioactive materials, (2) the establishment of quantitative relationships between radiation exposure and biological damage, (3) the movement of radioactivity through the environment, and (4) the design of radiologically safe equipment, processes, and environments. Clearly, health physics is a professional ﬁeld that cuts across the basic physical, life, and earth sciences as well as such applied areas as toxicology, industrial hygiene, medicine, public health, and engineering. The professional health physicist, therefore, in order to perform effectively, must have an appreciation of the complex interrelationships between humans and the physical, chemical, biological, and even social components of the environment. He or she must be competent in the wide spectrum of disciplines that bridge the ﬁelds between industrial operations and technology on one hand and health science, including epidemiology, on the other. In addition to these general prerequisites, the health physicist must be technically competent in the subject matter unique to health physics. The main purpose of this book is to lay the groundwork for attaining technical competency in health physics. Radiation safety standards undergo continuing 1

2

CHAPTER 1

change as new knowledge is gained and as the public’s perception of radiation’s beneﬁts and risks evolve. Radiation safety nomenclature too changes in order to accommodate changing standards. Because of the nature of the subject matter and the topics covered, however, it is hoped that the book will be a useful source of information to workers in environmental health as well as to those who will use radiation as a tool. For the latter group, it is also hoped that this book will impart an appreciation for radiation safety as well as an understanding of the philosophy of environmental health.

2 REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES MECHANICS Units and Dimensions Health physics is a science and hence is a systematic organization of knowledge about the interaction between radiation and organic and inorganic matter. Quite clearly, the organization must be quantitative as well as qualitative since the control of radiation hazards implies knowledge of the dose–response relationship between radiation exposure and the biological effects of radiation. Quantitative relationships are based on measurements, which, in reality, are comparisons of the attribute under investigation to a standard. A measurement includes two components: a number and a unit. In measuring the height of a person, for example, the result is given as 70 inches (in.) if the British system of units is used or as 177.8 centimeters (cm) if the metric system is used. The unit inches in the ﬁrst case and centimeters in the second tell us what the criterion for comparison is, and the number tells us how many of these units are included in the quantity being measured. Although 70 in. means exactly the same thing as 177.8 cm, it is clear that without an understanding of the units the information contained in the number above would be meaningless. In the United States, the British system of units is used chieﬂy in engineering, while the metric system is widely used in science. Three physical quantities are considered basic in the physical sciences: length, mass, and time. In the British system of units, these quantities are measured in feet, slugs (a slug is that quantity of mass that is accelerated at a rate of one foot per second per second by a force of one pound; a mass of 1 slug weighs 32.2 pounds), and seconds, respectively, while the metric system is divided into two subsystems: the mks—in which the three quantities are speciﬁed in meters, kilograms, and seconds— and the cgs—in which centimeters, grams, and seconds are used to designate length, mass, and time. By international agreement, the metric system is being replaced by a third and new system—the Syst`eme International, the International System of Units, or simply 3

4

CHAPTER 2

the SI system. Although many familiar metric units are employed in SI, it should be emphasized that SI is a new system and must not be thought of as a new form of the metric system. All the other units such as force, energy, power, and so on are derived from the three basic units of mass in kilograms (kg), length in meters (m), and time in seconds (s), plus the four additional basic units: electric current in amperes (A), temperature in Kelvin (K) or degrees Celsius (◦ C), where 1 K = 1◦ C, amount of a substance in moles (mol), and luminous intensity in candelas (cd). For example, the unit of force, the newton (N), is deﬁned as follows: One newton is the unbalanced force that will accelerate a mass of one kilogram at a rate of one meter per second per second.

Expressed mathematically: Force = mass × acceleration, that is, F = m × a,

(2.1)

and the dimensions are F = kg ×

m/s . s

Since dimensions may be treated algebraically in the same way as numbers, the dimension for acceleration is written as m/s2 . The dimensions for force in units of newton (N), therefore, are N=

kg · m . s2

In the cgs system, the unit of force is called the dyne. The dyne is deﬁned as follows: One dyne is the unbalanced force that will accelerate a mass of one gram at a rate of one cm per second per second.

For health physics applications, the magnitude of cgs units were closer to the magnitudes being measured than the mks units and, therefore, the cgs system was universally used. However, despite the long history of cgs-based units, the cgs system is being replaced by SI units in order to be consistent with most of the other sciences that have adopted SI units. All the international bodies that deal with radiation safety base their recommendations on SI units. However, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission continues to use the traditional cgs units in its regulatory activities.

Work and Energy Energy is deﬁned as the ability to do work. Since all work requires the expenditure of energy, the two terms are expressed in the same units and consequently have the same dimensions. Work W is done, or energy expended, when a force f is exerted through some distance r : W = f × r.

(2.2)

5

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

In the SI system, the joule (J) (named after the British scientist who measured the mechanical equivalent of heat energy) is the unit of work and energy and is deﬁned as follows: One joule of work is done when a force of one newton is exerted through a distance of one meter.

Since work is deﬁned as the product of a force and a distance, the dimensions for work and energy are as follows: joule = newton × meter =

kg · m kg · m2 × m = . s2 s2

(2.3)

The unit of work or energy in the cgs system is called the erg and is deﬁned as follows: One erg of work is done when a force of one dyne is exerted through a distance of one centimeter.

The joule is a much greater amount of energy than an erg. 1 joule = 107 ergs. Although the erg is very much smaller than a joule, it nevertheless is very much greater than the energies encountered in the submicroscopic world of the atom. When working on the atomic scale, a more practical unit called the electron volt (eV) is used. The electron volt is a unit of energy and is deﬁned as follows: 1 eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J = 1.6 × 10−13 erg. When work is done on a body, the energy expended in doing the work is added to the energy of the body. For example, if a mass is lifted from one elevation to another, the energy that was expended during the performance of the work is converted to potential energy. On the other hand, when work is done to accelerate a body, the energy that was expended appears as kinetic energy in the moving body. In the case where work was done in lifting a body, the mass possesses more potential energy at the higher elevation than it did before it was lifted. Work was done, in this case, against the force of gravity and the total increase in potential energy of the mass is equal to its weight, which is the force with which the mass is attracted to the earth, multiplied by the height through which the mass was raised. Potential energy is deﬁned as energy that a body possesses by virtue of its position in a force ﬁeld. Kinetic energy is deﬁned as energy possessed by a moving body as result of its motion. For bodies of mass m, moving “slowly” with a velocity v less than about 3 × 107 m/s, the kinetic energy, E k , is given by Ek =

1 2 mv , 2

(2.3a)

and the total energy of the body is equal to the sum of its potential energy and its kinetic energy E t = E pe + E k .

(2.3b)

6

CHAPTER 2

When the speed of a moving body increases beyond about 3 × 107 m/s, we observe interesting changes in their behavior—changes that were explained by Albert Einstein.

RELATIVISTIC EFFECTS According to the system of classical mechanics that was developed by Newton and the other great thinkers of the Renaissance period, mass is an immutable property of matter; it can be changed in size, shape, or state but it can neither be created nor be destroyed. Although this law of conservation of mass seems to be true for the world that we can perceive with our senses, it is in fact only a special case for conditions of large masses and slow speeds. In the submicroscopic world of the atom, where masses are measured on the order of 10−27 kg, where distances are measured on the order of 10−10 m, and where velocities are measured in terms of the velocity of light, classical mechanics is not applicable. Einstein, in his special theory of relativity, postulated that the velocity of light in a vacuum is constant at 3 × 108 m/s relative to every observer in any reference frame. He also postulated that the speed of light is an upper limit of speed that a material body can asymptotically approach, but never can attain. Furthermore, according to Einstein, the mass of a moving body is not constant, as was previously thought, but rather a function of the velocity with which the body is moving. As the velocity increases, the mass increases, and when the velocity of the body approaches the velocity of light, the mass increases very rapidly. The mass m of a moving object whose velocity is v is related to its rest mass m 0 by the equation m=

m0 v2 1− 2 c

,

(2.4)

where c is the velocity of light, 3 × 108 m/s.

W

Example 2.1

Compute the mass of an electron moving at 10% and 90% of the speed of light. The rest mass of an electron is 9.11 × 10−31 kg. Solution At v = 0.1c , 9.11 × 10−31 kg m= = 9.16 × 10−31 kg 2 (0.1 c ) 1− c2

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

7

and at v = 0.99 c , 9.11 × 10−31 kg m= = 64.6 × 10−31 kg 2 (0.99 c ) 1− c2

Example 2.1 shows that whereas an electron suffers a mass increase of only 0.5% when it is moving at 10% of the speed of light, its mass increases about sevenfold when the velocity is increased to 99% of the velocity of light. Kinetic energy of a moving body can be thought of as the income from work put into the body, or energy input, in order to bring the body up to its ﬁnal velocity. Expressed mathematically, we have W = Ek = f × r =

1 2 mv . 2

(2.5)

However, the expression for kinetic energy in Eqs. (2.3) and (2.5) is a special case since the mass is assumed to remain constant during the time that the body is undergoing acceleration from its initial to its ﬁnal velocity. If the ﬁnal velocity is sufﬁciently high to produce observable relativistic effects (this is usually taken as v ≈ 0.1c = 3 × 107 m/s, then Eqs. (2.3) and (2.5) are no longer valid. As the body gains velocity under the inﬂuence of an unbalanced force, its mass continuously increases until it attains the value given by Eq. (2.4). This particular value for the mass is thus applicable only to one point during the time that body was undergoing acceleration. The magnitude of the unbalanced force, therefore, must be continuously increased during the accelerating process to compensate for the increasing inertia of the body due to its continuously increasing mass. Equations (2.2) and (2.5) assume the force to be constant and therefore are not applicable to cases where relativistic effects must be considered. One way of overcoming this difﬁculty is to divide the total distance r into many smaller distances, r 1 , r 2 , . . . , r n , as shown in Figure 2-1, multiply each of these small distances by the average force exerted while traversing the small distance, and then sum the products. This process may be written as W = f 1 r 1 + f 2 r 2 + · · · · + f n r n

(2.6a)

f

r0

Δr1

Δr2

Δr3

Δrn-1

Δrn

r Figure 2-1. Diagram illustrating that the total work done in accelerating a body is W =

rn n n=1

fn r n .

8

CHAPTER 2

and symbolized by W=

n

f n r n

(2.6b)

n =1

As r is successively divided into smaller and smaller lengths, the calculation of the work done, using Eq. (2.6), becomes more accurate. A limiting value for W may be obtained by letting each small distance r n in Eq. (2.6) approach zero, that is, by considering such small increments of distance that the force remains approximately constant during the speciﬁed interval. In the notation of the calculus, such an inﬁnitesimally small quantity is called a differential and is speciﬁed by preﬁxing the symbol for the quantity with the letter “d.” Thus, if r represents distance, dr represents an inﬁnitesimally small distance and the differential of work done, which is the product of the force and the inﬁnitesimally small distance, is given by dW = f dr.

(2.7)

The total energy expended in going from the point r 0 to point r n , then, is merely the sum of all the products of the force and the inﬁnitesimally small distances through which it acted. This sum is indicated by the mathematical notation r =n W=

f dr .

(2.8)

r =0

The ratio of two differentials, dW /dr, for example, is called a derivative, and the process in which a derivative is obtained is called differentiation. Since acceleration is deﬁned as the rate of change of velocity with respect to time, a=

v v2 − v1 , = t2 − t 1 t

(2.9)

where v1 and v2 are the respective velocities at times t1 and t2 . Then Eq. (2.1) may be written as f =m

v , t

(2.10)

and by letting t approach zero we obtain the instantaneous rate of change of velocity or the derivative of velocity with respect to time. Using the differential notation, we have f =m

dv . dt

(2.11)

This is the expression of Newton’s second law of motion for the nonrelativistic case where the mass remains constant. Newton’s second law states that the rate of change of momentum of an accelerating body is proportional to the unbalanced force acting on the body. For the general case, where mass is not constant, Newton’s second law is written as f =

d (mv) . dt

(2.12)

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

9

Substitution of the value of f from Eq. (2.12) into Eq. (2.8) gives r W=

d (mv) dr . dt

(2.13)

Since v = dr /dt, Eq. (2.13) can be written as t W=

d (mv) v dt = dt

mv v d (mv),

(2.14)

and substituting m =

m0

1/2 , we have v2 1− 2 c ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ v ⎬ ⎨ m 0v W= . vd 1/2 ⎪ ⎪ v2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ 1− c2

Differentiating the term in the parenthesis gives ⎧ ⎫ 3 ⎪ ⎪ v ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ v ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ 2 v c dv. + W = m0 3/2 ⎪ 1/2 ⎪ v2 v2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎩ 1− ⎭ 1− 2 c c2

(2.15)

(2.16)

Now, multiply the numerator and denominator of the ﬁrst term in Eq. (2.16) by 1 − v 2 /c 2 to obtain v W = m0 0

v = m0

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨

⎫ ⎪ v3 v3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ v− 2 2 c c + 3/2 3/2 ⎪ dv ⎪ v2 v2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 1− 2 ⎭ 1− 2 c c

v

v 2 3/2

v 1− 2 c

dv = m 0 0

1 . 3/2 v2 v 1− 2 dv c

(2.17)

(2.18)

The integrand in Eq. (2.18) is almost in the form b un du = a

b un+1 , n + 1 a

(2.19)

10

CHAPTER 2

where 1

un = 1−

2 3/2

du = −

and

v c2

2v dv. c2

To convert Eq. (2.18) into the form for integration given by Eq. (2.19), it is necessary only to complete du. This is done by multiplying the integrand by –2/c 2 and the entire expression by –c 2 /2 in order to keep the total value of Eq. (2.18) unchanged. The solution of Eq. (2.18), which gives the kinetic energy of a body that was accelerated from zero velocity to a velocity v, is ⎤ ⎡ ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 ⎥ 2⎢ 2 = m0c (2.20) E k = W = m0c ⎢ 1/2 − 1 , 1/2 − 1⎥ ⎦ ⎣ v2 1 − β2 1− 2 c where β = v/c . Equation (2.20) is the exact expression for kinetic energy and must be used whenever the moving body experiences observable relativistic effects.

W

Example 2.2

(a) What is the kinetic energy of the electron in Example 2.1 that travels at 99% of the velocity of light? Solution E k = m0c

2

1

1 − β2

= 9.11 × 10

−31

1/2 − 1

m 2 kg 3 × 10 s

8

1

1 − (0.99)2

−13 J 1/2 − 1 = 4.99 × 10

(b) How much additional energy is required to increase the velocity of this electron to 99.9% of the velocity of light, an increase in velocity of only 0.91%? Solution The kinetic energy of an electron whose velocity is 99.9% of the speed of light is 2 1 −31 8 m −13 kg 3 × 10 J E k = 9.11 × 10 − 1 = 17.52 × 10 2 1/2 s 1 − (0.999)

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

11

The additional work necessary to increase the kinetic energy of the electron from 99% to 99.9% of the velocity of light is W = (17.52 − 4.99) × 10−13 J = 12.53 × 10−13 J. (c) What is the mass of the electron whose β is 0.999? Solution 9.11 × 10−31 kg −31 kg. 1/2 = 1/2 = 204 × 10 1 − β2 1 − (0.999)2

m=

m0

The relativistic expression for kinetic energy given by Eq. (2.20) is rigorously true for particles moving at all velocities while the nonrelativistic expression for kinetic energy, Eq. (2.3), is applicable only to cases where the velocity of the moving particle is much less than the velocity of light. It can be shown that the relativistic expression reduces to the nonrelativistic expression for low velocities by expanding −1/2 in Eq. (2.20) according to the binomial theorem and the expression 1 − β 2 then dropping higher terms that become insigniﬁcant when v c . According to the binomial theorem, (a + b)n = a n + na n−1 b +

n (n − 1) a n−2 b 2 + · · ·· 2!

(2.21)

−1/2 according to Eq. (2.21), is accomplished by letting The expansion of 1 − β 2 a = 1, b = −β 2 , and n = −1/2.

1 − β2

−1/2

1 3 = 1 + β2 + β4 + · · · · 2 8

(2.22)

Since β = v/c , then, if v c , terms from β 4 and higher will be insigniﬁcantly small and may therefore be dropped. Then, after substituting the ﬁrst two terms from Eq. (2.22) into Eq. (2.20), we have 1 v2 1 E k = m0c 2 1 + − 1 = m 0v2 , 2 c2 2 which is the nonrelativistic case. Equation (2.3) is applicable when v c . In Example 2.2, it was shown that at a very high velocity (β = 0.99) a kinetic energy increase of 253% resulted in a velocity increase of the moving body by only 0.91%. In nonrelativistic cases, the increase in velocity is directly proportional to the square root of the work done on the moving body or, in other words, to the kinetic energy of the body. In the relativistic case, the velocity increase due to additional energy is smaller than in the nonrelativistic case because the additional energy serves to increase the mass of the moving body rather than its velocity. This equivalence of mass and energy is one of the most important consequences of Einstein’s special

12

CHAPTER 2

theory of relativity. According to Einstein, the relationship between mass and energy is E = mc 2 ,

(2.23)

where E is the total energy of a piece of matter whose mass is m and c is the velocity of light in vacuum. The principle of relativity tells us that all matter contains potential energy by virtue of its mass. It is this energy source that is tapped to obtain nuclear energy. The main virtue of this energy source is the vast amount of energy that can be derived from conversion into its energy equivalent of small amounts of nuclear fuel.

W

EXAMPLE 2.3

(a) How much energy can be obtained from 1 g of nuclear fuel? Solution E = mc 2 = 1 × 10−3 kg ×

3 × 108

m 2 = 9 × 1013 J. s

Since there are 2.78 × 10−7 kilowatt-hours (kW h) per joule, 1 g of nuclear fuel yields E = 9 × 1013

J kW · h kW · h × 2.78 × 10−7 = 2.5 × 107 g J g

(b) How much coal, whose heat content is 13,000 Btu/lb, must be burned to liberate the same amount of energy as 1 g of nuclear fuel? Solution 1 Btu = 2.93 × 10−4 kW h. Therefore, the amount of coal required is Btu kW · h × 2.93 × 10−4 2.5 × 107 kW · h = 1.3 × 104 lb Btu lb ×2 × 103 × C tons ton Therefore, C = 3280 tons (2981 metric tons)

The loss in mass accompanying ordinary energy transformations is not detectable because of the very large amount of energy released per unit mass and the

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

13

consequent very small change in mass for ordinary reactions. In the case of coal, for example, the above example shows a loss in mass of 1 g per 3280 tons. The fractional mass loss is f =

m = m

1g 3.28 × 10 tons × 2 × 10 3

3

lb ton

× 4.54 × 10

2

g

= 3.3 × 10−10 .

lb

Such a small fractional loss in mass is not detectable by any of our ordinary weighing techniques.

ELECTRICITY Electric Charge: The Coulomb All the elements are electrical in nature and, except for hydrogen, are constructed of multiples of two charged particles and one uncharged particle. Their electrical properties are due to extremely small, charged particles called protons and electrons. The mass of the proton is 1.6726 × 10−27 kg (1.6726 × 10−24 g) and the mass of the electron is 9.1085 × 10−31 kg (9.1085 × 10−28 g). These two particles have charges of exactly the same magnitude but are qualitatively different. A proton is said to have a positive charge and an electron has a negative charge. Under normal conditions, matter is electrically neutral because the positive and negative charges are hom*ogeneously (on a macroscopic scale) dispersed in equal numbers in a manner that results in no net charge. However, it is possible, by suitable treatment, to induce either net positive or negative charges on bodies. For example, combing the hair with a hard rubber comb transfers electrons to the comb from the hair, leaving a net negative charge on the comb. The uncharged component in every element is called the neutron; it has a mass of 1.67492 × 10−27 kg (1.67492 × 10−24 g). For health physics purposes, these three particles—electron, proton, and neutron—may be considered the basic building blocks of matter (although we now believe that protons and neutrons themselves are made of still smaller particles called quarks). It should be pointed out here that high-energy accelerators produce—in addition to protons, neutrons, and electrons—a number of different extremely short-lived unstable particles. In the context of health physics, the most important of these particles are charged and uncharged pions (pi-mesons) and muons (mu-mesons) because they give rise to very high-energy electrons and gamma rays when they decay. Muons are also produced by cosmic radiation and contribute to the dose from cosmic radiation. Charged bodies exert forces on each other by virtue of their electric ﬁelds. Bodies with like charges repel each other while those with unlike charges attract each other. In the case of point charges, the magnitude of these electric forces is proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the charged bodies. This relationship was described by Coulomb and is known as Coulomb’s law. Expressed algebraically, it is f =k

q 1q 2 . r2

(2.24)

where k, the constant of proportionality, depends on the nature of the medium that separates the charges. In the SI system, the unit of electric charge, called the coulomb

14

CHAPTER 2

(C), is deﬁned in terms of electric current rather than by Coulomb’s law. For this reason, the constant of proportionality has a value not equal to 1 but rather N · m2 (2.25) C2 when the two charges are in a vacuum or in air (air at atmospheric pressure exerts very little inﬂuence on the force developed between charges and thus may be considered equivalent to a vacuum). The subscript 0 signiﬁes the value of k in a vacuum. If the charges are separated by materials, other than air, that are poor conductors of electricity (such materials are called dielectrics), the value of k is different and depends on the material. It is convenient to deﬁne k 0 in terms of another constant, ε0 , called the permittivity: k0 = 9 × 109

N · m2 1 = 9 × 109 , (2.26) 4πε0 C2 C2 1 1 ε0 = = = 8.85 × 10−12 , 2 4π k0 N · m2 N·m 9 4π × 9 × 10 C2 where ε 0 is the permittivity of a vacuum. The permittivity of any other medium is designated by ε. The relative permittivity, K e , of a substance is deﬁned by ε (2.27) Ke = ε0 and is called the dielectric coefﬁcient. For all dielectric materials, the dielectric coefﬁcient has a value greater than 1. The permittivity, or the dielectric coefﬁcient, is a measure of the amount of electric energy that can be stored in a medium when the medium is placed into a given electric ﬁeld. If everything else is held constant, a higher dielectric coefﬁcient leads to a greater amount of stored electric energy. The smallest natural quantity of electric charge is the charge on the electron or proton, ±1.6 × 10−19 C. The reciprocal of the electronic charge, 6.25 × 1018 , is the number of electrons whose aggregate charge is 1 C. In the cgs system, the unit of charge is the statcoulomb (sC) and the electronic charge is 4.8 × 10−10 sC. There are 3 × 109 sC in 1 C. k0 =

W

EXAMPLE 2.4

Compare the electrical and gravitational forces of attraction between an electron and a proton separated by 5 × 10−11 m. Solution The electrical force is given by Eq. (2.24): f = k0

2 1.6 × 10−19 C × 1.6 × 10−19 C q 1q 2 9 N·m = 9 × 10 × 2 r2 C2 5 × 10−11 m

= 9.2 × 10−8 N.

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

15

The gravitational force between two bodies follows the same mathematical formulation as Coulomb’s law for electrical forces. In the case of gravitational forces, the force is always attractive. The gravitational force is given by F =

G m1m 2 . r2

(2.28)

G is a universal constant that is equal to 6.67 × 10−11 N · m2 /kg2 and must be used because the unit of force, the newton, was originally deﬁned using “inertial” mass, according to Newton’s second law of motion, given by Eq. (2.1). The mass in Eq. (2.28) is commonly called “gravitational” mass. Despite the two different designations, it should be emphasized that inertial mass and gravitational mass are equivalent. It should also be pointed out that F in Eq. (2.28) gives the weight of an object of mass m 1 when m 2 represents the mass of the earth and r is the distance from the object to the center of the earth. Weight is merely a measure of the gravitational attractive force between an object and the earth and therefore varies from point to point on the surface of the earth, according to the distance of the point from the earth’s center. On the surface of another planet, the weight of the same object would be different from that on earth because of the different size and mass of that planet and its consequent different attractive force. In outer space, if the object is not under the gravitational inﬂuence of any heavenly body, it must be weightless. Mass, on the other hand, is a measure of the amount of matter and its numerical value is therefore independent of the point in the universe where it is measured. The gravitational force between the electron and the proton is 6.67 × 10−11 F =

N · m2 × 9.11 × 10−31 kg × 1.67 × 10−27 kg kg2 2 5 × 10−11 m

= 4.1 × 10−47 N.

It is immediately apparent that in the interaction between charged particles, gravitational forces are extremely small in comparison with the electrical forces acting between the particles and may be completely neglected in most instances.

Electrical Potential: The Volt If one charge is held rigidly and another charge is placed in the electric ﬁeld of the ﬁrst charge, it will have a certain amount of potential energy relative to any other point within the electric ﬁeld. In the case of electric potential energy, the reference point is taken at an inﬁnite distance from the charge that sets up the electric ﬁeld, that is, at a point far enough from the charge so that its effect is negligible. As a consequence of the great separation, these charges do not interact electrically. Therefore, a value of zero is arbitrarily assigned to the potential energy in the system of charges; the charge at an inﬁnite distance from the one that sets up the electric ﬁeld has no electric potential energy. If the two charges are of the same sign, bringing them closer together requires work (or the expenditure of energy) in

16

CHAPTER 2

b

a

b

Figure 2-2. Diagram illustrating work done in moving a charge between two points of different potential in an electric ﬁeld.

a

order to overcome the repulsive force between the two charges. Since work was done in bringing the two charges together, the potential energy in the system of charges is now greater than it was initially. On the other hand, if the two charges are of opposite signs, then a decrease in distance between them occurs spontaneously because of the attractive forces, and work is done by the system. The potential energy of the system consequently decreases, that is, the potential energy of the freely moving charge with respect to the rigidly held charge, decreases. This is exactly analogous to the case of a freely falling mass whose potential energy decreases as it approaches the surface of the earth. In the case of the mass in the earth’s gravitational ﬁeld, however, the reference point for potential energy of the mass is arbitrarily set on the surface of the earth. This means that the mass has no potential energy when it is lying right on the earth’s surface. All numerical values for potential energy of the mass, therefore, are positive numbers. In the case of electric potential energy, however, as a consequence of the arbitrary convention that the point of the zero numerical value is at an inﬁnite distance from the charge that sets up the electric ﬁeld, the numerical values for the potential energy of a charge, owing to attractive electrical forces, must be negative. The quantitative aspects of electric potential energy may be investigated with the aid of Figure 2-2, which shows a charge +Q that sets up an electric ﬁeld extending uniformly in all directions. Another charge, +q , is used to explore the electric ﬁeld set up by Q. When the exploring charge is at point a, at a distance r a cm from Q, it has an amount of potential energy that depends on the magnitudes of Q, q , and r a . If the charge q is now to be moved to point b, which is closer to Q, then, because of the repulsive force between the two charges, work is done in moving the charge from point a to point b. The amount of work that is done in moving charge q from point a to point b may be calculated by multiplying the force exerted on the charge q by the distance through which it was moved, in accordance with Eq. (2.2). From Eq. (2.24), however, it is seen that the force is not constant but varies inversely with the square of the distance between the charges. The magnitude of the force, therefore, increases rapidly as the charge q approaches Q, and increasingly greater amounts of work are done when the exploring charge q is moved a unit distance. The movement of the exploring charge may be accomplished by a series of inﬁnitesimally small movements, during each of which an inﬁnitesimally small amount of work is done. The total energy expenditure, or increase in potential energy of the exploring charge, is then merely equal to the sum of all the inﬁnitesimal increments of work. This inﬁnitesimal energy increment is given by Eq. (2.7):

dW = − f dr

17

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

(the minus sign is used here because an increase in potential energy results from a decrease in distance between the charges) and, if the value for f from Eq. (2.24) is substituted into Eq. (2.7), we have dW = −k0

Qq dr, r2 r b

W = −k0 Qq

(2.29)

dr . r2

(2.30)

ra

Integration of Eq. (2.30) gives W = k0 Qq

1 1 − rb ra

.

(2.31)

If the distances a and b are measured in meters and if the charges are given in coulombs, then the energy W is given in joules.

W

EXAMPLE 2.5

If, in Figure 2-2, Q is +44.4 μC, q is +5 μC, and r a and r b are 2 m and 1 m respectively, then calculate the work done in moving the 5 μC charge from point a to point b. Solution The work done is, from Eq. (2.31), N · m2 1 1 −6 −6 × 44.4 × 10 C × 5 × 10 C − W = 9 × 10 C2 1m 2m 9

= 1 N · m = 1 J.

In this example, 1 J of energy was expended in moving the 5 μC of charge from a to b . The work per unit charge is J W 1J = 200, 000 = −6 q C 5 × 10 C

18

CHAPTER 2

We therefore say that the potential difference between points a and b is 200,000 V, since, by deﬁnition: One volt of potential difference exists between any two points in an electric ﬁeld if one joule of energy is expended in moving a charge of one coulomb between the two points.

Expressed more concisely, the deﬁnition of a volt is 1V=1

J . C

In Example 2.5, point b is the point of higher potential with respect to point a, because work had to be done on the charge to move it to b from a. The electrical potential at any point due to an electric ﬁeld from a point charge Q is deﬁned as the potential energy that a unit positive exploring charge +q would have if it were brought from a point at an inﬁnite distance from Q to the point in question. The electrical potential at point b in Figure 2-2 can be computed from Eq. (2.30) by setting distance r a equal to inﬁnity. The potential at point b, Vb , which is deﬁned as the potential energy per unit positive charge at b, is, therefore: Vb =

W

W Q = k0 . q rb

(2.32)

EXAMPLE 2.6

(a) What is the potential at a distance of 5 × 10−11 m from a proton? Solution V = k0

1.6 × 10−19 C N·m Q N · m2 × = 9 × 109 = 28.8 2 −11 r C 5 × 10 m C J = 28.8 = 28.8 V C

(b) What is the potential energy of another proton at this point? Solution According to Eq. (2.32), the potential energy of the proton is equal to the product of its charge and the potential of its location. Therefore, E p = q V = 1.6 × 10−19 C × 28.8 V = 4.6 × 10−18 J.

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

19

Electrical Current: The Ampere A ﬂow of electrically charged particles constitutes an electric current. The unit for the amount of current is the ampere (A), which is a measure of the time rate of ﬂow of charge. The ampere is deﬁned in the SI system by the interaction between a current ﬂowing through a conductor and a magnetic ﬁeld. However, a useful working deﬁnition is that one ampere represents a ﬂow rate of charge of one coulomb per second. Ordinarily, the charge carrier in an electric current is the electron. Since the charge on an electron is 1.6 × 10−19 C, a current of 1 A represents an electron ﬂow rate of 1 C/s × A

1 1.6 × 10−19

C electron

= 6.25 × 1018

electrons/s . A

A 100-μA electron beam in an X-ray tube represents an electron ﬂow rate of 100 × 10−6 A × 6.25 × 1018

electrons/s = 6.25 × 1014 electrons/s. A

Current is determined only by the ﬂow rate of charge. For example, in the case of a beam of alpha particles, whose charge = 2 × 1.6 × 10−19 C = 3.2 × 10−19 C, 1 A corresponds to 3.125 × 1019 alpha particles. The direction of current ﬂow was arbitrarily determined, before the discovery of the electron, to be from the positive electrode to the negative electrode of a closed circuit. In fact, the electrons ﬂow in the opposite direction. However, conventional current ﬂow still goes from positive to negative. When we are interested in the actual direction of ﬂow, we use the term “electron current” to indicate current ﬂow from negative to positive.

The Electron Volt: A Unit of Energy If two electrodes are connected to the terminals of a source of voltage, as shown in Figure 2-3, then a charged particle anywhere in the electric ﬁeld between the two plates will have an amount of potential energy given by Eq. (2.32), W = qV, where V is the electrical potential at the point occupied by the charged particle. If, for example, the cathode in Figure 2-3 is 1-V negative with respect to the anode and the charged particle is an electron on the surface of the cathode, then the potential

Figure 2-3. Diagram showing the potential energy of an electron in an electric ﬁeld.

20

CHAPTER 2

energy of the electron with respect to the anode is W = q V = −1.6 × 10−19 C × (−1 V) = 1.6 × 10−19 J This amount of energy, 1.6 × 10−19 J, is called an electron volt and is symbolized by eV. Since the magnitude of the electron volt is convenient in dealing with the energetics of atomic and nuclear mechanics, this quantity of energy is taken as a unit and is frequently used in health physics. Multiples of the electron volt are the keV (103 eV), the MeV (106 eV), and the GeV (109 eV).

W

EXAMPLE 2.7

How many electron volts of energy correspond to the mass of a resting electron? Solution E = mc 2

m 2 = 9.11 × 10−31 kg × 3 × 108 s = 81.99 × 10−15 J

Since there are 1.6 × 10−19 E =

J , eV

81.99 × 10−15 J = 0.51 × 106 eV. J 1.6 × 10−19 eV

It should be emphasized that, although the numerical value for the electron volt was calculated by computing the potential energy of an electron at a potential of 1 V, the electron volt is not a unit of electrons or volts; it is a unit of energy and may be interchanged (after numerical correction) with any other unit of energy.

W

EXAMPLE 2.8

How many electron volts of heat must be added to change 1 L of water whose temperature is 50◦ C to completely dry steam?

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

21

Solution The speciﬁc heat of water is 1

cal , and the heat of vaporization of water is 539 g

cal . Therefore, g !

cal cal × (100 − 50) deg + 539 heat energy added = 1000 g 1 g · deg g

"

= 589,000 cal Since there are 4.186

heat energy added =

J J and 1.6 × 10−19 , we have cal eV 5.89 × 105 cal × 4.186 1.6 × 10−19

J eV

J cal = 1.54 × 1025 eV

The answer to Example 2.8 is an astronomically large number (but not very much energy on the scale of ordinary physical and chemical reactions) and shows why the electron volt is a useful energy unit only for reactions in the atomic world.

W

EXAMPLE 2.9

An alpha particle, whose charge is +(2 × 1.6 × 10−19 ) C and whose mass is 6.645 × 10−27 kg, is accelerated across a potential difference of 100,000 V. What is its kinetic energy, in joules and in electron volts, and how fast is it moving? Solution The potential energy of the alpha particle at the moment it starts to accelerate is, from Eq. (2.32), W = q V = 2 × 1.6 × 10−19 C × 105 V = 3.2 × 10−14 J In terms of electron volts, W=

3.2 × 10−14 J = 2 × 105 eV J 1.6 × 10−19 eV

22

CHAPTER 2

Since all the alpha particle’s potential energy is converted into kinetic energy after it falls through the 100,000 V (100 kV) potential difference, the kinetic energy must then be 200,000 eV (200 keV). The velocity of the alpha particle may be computed by equating its potential and kinetic energies, qV =

1 2 mv , 2

(2.33)

and solving for v: v=

2q V m

#

1/2 =

= 3.1 × 106

2 × 105 V × 3.2 × 10−19 C

$1/2

6.645 × 10−27 kg

m . s

Electric Field The term electric ﬁeld was used in the preceding sections of this chapter without an explicit deﬁnition. Implicit in the use of the term, however, was the connotation by the context that an electric ﬁeld is any region where electric forces act. “Electric ﬁeld” is not merely a descriptive term; deﬁning an electric ﬁeld requires a number in order to specify the magnitude of the electric forces that act in the electric ﬁeld and a direction in which these forces act, and, thus, it is a vector quantity. The strength of an electric ﬁeld is called the electric ﬁeld intensity and may be deﬁned in terms of the force (magnitude and direction) that acts on a unit exploring charge that is placed into the electric ﬁeld. Consider an isolated charge +Q that sets up an electric ﬁeld and an exploring charge +q that is used to investigate the electric ﬁeld, as shown in Figure 2-4. The exploring charge will experience a force in the direction shown and of a magnitude given by Eq. (2.24): f = k0

Qq . r2

The force per unit charge at the point r meters from charge Q is the electric ﬁeld intensity at that point and is given by the equation ε=

N · m2 QC f N = k0 × 2 2. q C r m C2

Figure 2-4. The force on an exploring charge +q in the electric ﬁeld of charge +Q.

(2.34)

23

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

According to Eq. (2.34), electric ﬁeld intensity is expressed in units of force per unit charge, that is, in newton per coulomb. It should be emphasized that ε is a vector quantity, that is, it has direction as well as magnitude.

W

EXAMPLE 2.10

(a) What is the electric ﬁeld intensity at point P due to the two charges +6 C and +3 C, shown in Figure 2-5(A)? Solution The electric ﬁeld intensity at point P due to the +6 C charge is ε1 = k0

Q1 N · m2 N 6C = 9 × 109 × = 1.35 × 1010 2 2 2 C (2 m) C r1

and acts in the direction shown in Figure 2-5(A). (The magnitude of the ﬁeld intensity is shown graphically by a vector whose length is proportional to the ﬁeld intensity. In Figure 2-5(A), the scale is 1 cm = 1 × 1010 N/C. ε1 is therefore drawn 1.35-cm long). ε2 , the electric ﬁeld intensity at P due to the +3 C charge, is ε2 = k 0

Q2 N · m2 N 3C = 9 × 109 × = 2.7 × 1010 , 2 2 2 C (1 m) C r2

and acts along the line Q 2 P , as shown in the illustration. The resultant electric intensity at point P is the vector sum of ε1 and ε2 . If these two vectors are accurately drawn in magnitude and direction, the resultant may be obtained graphically by completing the parallelogram of forces and drawing the diagonal εR . The length of

ε ε ε ε ε ε A

B

Figure 2-5. Resultant electric ﬁeld from (A) two positive charges and (B) two opposite charges.

24

CHAPTER 2

the diagonal is proportional to the magnitude of the resultant electric ﬁeld intensity and its direction shows the direction of the electric ﬁeld at point P . In this case, since 1 × 1010 N/C is represented by 1 cm, the resultant electric ﬁeld intensity is found to be about 4 × 1010 N/C and it acts in a direction 30◦ clockwise from the vertical. The value of ε R may also be determined from the law of cosines a 2 = b 2 + c 2 − 2bc cos A,

(2.35)

where b and c are two adjacent sides of a triangle, A is the included angle, and a is the side opposite angle A. In this case, b is 2.7 × 1010 , c is 1.35 × 1010 , angle A is 120◦ , and a is the resultant εR , the electric ﬁeld intensity whose magnitude is to be calculated. From Eq. (2.35), we ﬁnd 2 2 εR2 = 2.7 × 1010 + 1.35 × 1010 − 2 2.7 × 1010 1.35 × 1010 cos 120◦ N C (b) What is the magnitude and direction of εR if the 3 C charge is negative and the 6 C charge is positive? εR = 3.57 × 1010

Solution In this case, the magnitudes of ε 1 and ε2 would be exactly the same as in part (a) of this example; the direction of ε1 would also remain unchanged, but the direction of ε 2 would be toward the −3 C charge, as shown in Figure 2-5(B). From the geometric arrangement, it is seen that the resultant intensity acts in a direction 120◦ clockwise from the vertical. The magnitude of εR , from Eq. (2.35), is 2 2 εR2 = 2.7 × 1010 + 1.35 × 1010 − 2 2.7 × 1010 1.35 × 1010 cos 60◦ εR = 2.34 × 1010

N . C

Point charges result in nonuniform electric ﬁelds. A uniform electric ﬁeld may be produced by applying a potential difference across two large parallel plates made of electrical conductors separated by an insulator, as shown in Figure 2-6.

Figure 2-6. Conditions for producing a relatively uniform electric ﬁeld. The ﬁeld will be quite uniform throughout the region between the plates, but will be distorted at the edges of the plates.

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

25

The electric intensity throughout the region between the two plates is ε newtons per coulomb. The force acting on any charge within this ﬁeld therefore is f = εq N.

(2.36)

If the charge q happens to be positive, then to move it across the distance d, from the negative to the positive plates, against the electric force in the uniform ﬁeld requires the expenditure of energy given by the equation W = f d = εq d.

(2.37)

However, since potential difference (V ) is deﬁned as work per unit charge, Eq. (2.37) may be expressed as V =

W = εd, q

(2.38)

or ε=

V V . d m

(2.39)

Equation (2.39) expresses electric ﬁeld intensity in the units most commonly used for this purpose—volts per meter. A nonuniform electric ﬁeld that is of interest to the health physicist (in instrument design) is that due to a potential difference applied across two coaxial conductors, as shown in Figure 2-7. If the radius of the inner conductor is a meters and that of the outer conductor is b meters, then the electric intensity at any point between the two conductors, r meters from the center, is given by ε=

1 × r

V V , b m ln a

(2.40)

where V is the potential difference between the two conductors.

b a V

r

Figure 2-7. Conditions for the nonuniform electric ﬁeld between two coaxial conductors given by Eq. (2.40).

26

CHAPTER 2

W

EXAMPLE 2.11

A Geiger-M¨uller counter is constructed of a wire anode whose diameter is 0.1 mm and a cathode, coaxial with the anode, whose diameter is 2 cm. If the voltage across the tube is 1000 V, what is the electric ﬁeld intensity (a) at a distance of 0.03 mm from the surface of the anode and (b) at a point midway between the center of the tube and the cathode?

Solution (a) We know, ε=

1 × r

V . b ln a

Letting r = we have, ε=

1 2

(0.01) + 0.003 = 0.008 cm = 8 × 10−5 m,

1 V 1000 V = 2.36 × 106 . × 1 8 × 10−5 m ln m 0.005

(b) At r = 0.005 m, ε=

V 1000 V 1 = 3.78 × 104 . × 1 0.005 m ln m 0.005

It should be noted that in the case of coaxial geometry, extremely intense electric ﬁelds may be obtained with relatively small potential differences. Such large ﬁelds require mainly a small ratio of outer to inner electrode radii.

ENERGY TRANSFER In a quantitative sense, the biological effects of radiation depend on the amount of energy absorbed by living matter from a radiation ﬁeld and by the spatial distribution in tissue of the absorbed energy. In order to comprehend the physics of tissue irradiation, some pertinent mechanisms of energy transfer must be understood.

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

27

Elastic Collision An elastic collision is deﬁned as a collision between two bodies in which kinetic energy and momentum are conserved; that is, the sum of the kinetic energy of the two bodies before the collision is equal to their sum after the collision, and the sums of their momenta before and after the collision are the same. In an elastic collision, the total kinetic energy is redistributed between the colliding bodies; one body gains energy at the expense of the other. A simple case is illustrated in the example below.

W

EXAMPLE 2.12

A block of mass 10 kg, made of a perfectly elastic material, slides on a frictionless surface with a velocity of 2 m/s and strikes a stationary elastic block whose mass is 2 kg (Fig. 2-8). How much energy was transferred from the large block (M) to the small block (m) during the collision? Solution If V1 ,v1 , andV2 and v2 are the respective velocities of the large and small blocks before and after the collision, then, according to the laws of conservation of energy and momentum, we have 1 1 1 1 MV12 + mv12 = MV22 + mv22 2 2 2 2

(2.41)

and MV1 + mv1 = MV2 + mv2

(2.42)

Since v1 = 0, Eqs. (2.41) and (2.42) may be solved simultaneously to give V2 = 1 13

m m and v2 = 3 13 . s s

The kinetic energy transferred during the collision is 16 1 1 1 1 MV12 − MV22 = × 10 4 − = 11 J, 2 2 2 9 9

Figure 2-8. Elastic collision between blocks M and m, in which the sum of both kinetic energy and momenta of the two blocks before and after the collision are the same.

28

CHAPTER 2

and this, of course, is the energy gained by the smaller block: 1 100 1 1 2 mv = × 2 × = 11 J. 2 2 9 9

Note that the magnitude of the force exerted by the larger block on the smaller block during the collision was not considered in the solution of Example 2.12. The reason for not explicitly considering the force in the solution can be seen from Eq. (2.10), which may be written as f × t = m × v. According to Eq. (2.10), the force necessary to change the momentum of a block is dependent on the time during which it acts. The parameter of importance in this case is the product of the force and the time. This parameter is called the impulse; Eq. (2.10) may be written in words as Impulse = change of momentum. The length of time during which the force acts depends on the relative velocity of the system of moving masses and on the nature of the mass. Generally, the more the colliding blocks “give in,” the greater will be the time of application of the force and the smaller, consequently, will be the magnitude of the force. For this reason, for example, a baseball player who catches a ball moves his hand back at the moment of impact, thereby increasing the time during which the stopping force acts and decreasing the shock to his hand. For this same reason, a jumper ﬂexes his knees as his feet strike the ground, thereby increasing the time that his body comes to rest and decreasing the force on his body. For example, a man who jumps down a distance of 1 m is moving with a velocity of 4.43 m/s at the instant that he strikes the ﬂoor. If he weighs 70 kg and if he lands rigidly ﬂat footed and is brought to a complete stop in 0.01 s, then the stopping force, from Eq. (2.10), is 3.1 × 104 N, or 6980 lb. If, however, he lands on his toes and then lowers his heels and ﬂexes his knees as he strikes, thereby increasing his actual stopping time to 0.5 s, the average stopping force is only about 140 lb. In the case of the two blocks in Example 2.12, if the time of contact is 0.01 s, then the average force of the collision during this time interval is

f =

10 kg × 0.0067 0.01 s

m s = 6.7 N

The instantaneous forces acting on the two blocks vary from zero at the instant of impact to a maximum value at some time during the collision, then to zero again as the second block leaves the ﬁrst one. This may be graphically shown in Figure 2-9, a curve of force versus time during the collision. The average force during the collision is the area under the curve divided by the time that the two blocks are in contact.

29

Force

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

Time

Figure 2-9. The time variation of the force between colliding bodies.

In the case of a collision between two masses, such as that described above, one block exerts a force on the other only while the two blocks are in “contact.” During “contact,” the two blocks seem to be physically touching each other. Actually, however, the two blocks are merely very close together, too close, in fact, for us to be able to perceive any space between them. Under this condition, the two blocks repel each other by very short-range forces that are thought to be electrical in nature. (These forces will be discussed again in Chapter 3.) This concept of a “collision” without actual contact between the colliding masses may be easily demonstrated with the aid of magnets. If magnets are afﬁxed to the two blocks in Example 2.12, as shown in Figure 2-10, then the magnetic force, which acts over relatively long distances, will repel the two blocks, and the smaller block will move. If the total mass of each block, including the magnet, remains the same as in Example 2.12, then the calculations and results of Example 2.12 are applicable. The only difference between the physical “collision” and the magnetic “collision” is that the magnitude of the force in the former case is greater than in the latter instance, but the time during which the forces are effective is greater in the case of the magnetic “collision.” In both instances, the product of average force and time is exactly the same.

Inelastic Collision If the conditions in Figure 2-8 are modiﬁed by fastening the 2-kg block, block B, to the ﬂoor with a rubber band, then, in order to break the rubber band and cause the block to slide freely, the 10-kg block, block A, must transfer at least sufﬁcient energy to break the rubber band. Any additional energy transferred would then appear as kinetic energy of block B. If the energy necessary to break the rubber band is called the binding energy of block B, then the kinetic energy of block B after it is struck by block A is equal to the difference between the energy lost by A and the binding energy of B. Algebraically, this may be written as E B = E A − φ,

(2.43)

Figure 2-10. “Collision” between two magnetic ﬁelds.

30

CHAPTER 2

where E A is the energy lost by block A and φ is the binding energy of block B. In a collision of this type, where energy is expended to free one of the colliding bodies, kinetic energy is not conserved and the collision is therefore not elastic, that is, it is inelastic.

W

EXAMPLE 2.13

A stationary block B, whose mass is 2 kg, is held by an elastic cord whose elastic constant is 10 N/m and whose ultimate strength is 5 N. Another block A, whose mass is 10 kg, is moving with a velocity of 2 m/s on a frictionless surface. If block A strikes block B, with what velocity will block B move after the collision? Solution From Example 2.12, it is seen that the energy lost by block A in this collision is 11 19 J. The energy expended in breaking the rubber band may be calculated from the product of the force needed to break the elastic cord and the distance that the elastic cord stretches before breaking. In the case of a spring, rubber band, or any other substance that is elastically deformed, the deforming force is opposed by a restoring force whose magnitude is proportional to the deformation. That is, f = k × r,

(2.44)

where f is the force needed to deform the elastic body by an amount r, and k is the “spring constant” or the force per unit deformation. Since Eq. (2.44) shows that the force is not constant but rather is proportional to the deformation of the rubber band, the work done in stretching the rubber band must be computed by the application of calculus. The inﬁnitesimal work, dW , done in stretching the rubber band through a distance dr is dW = f dr, and the total work done in stretching the rubber band from r = 0 to r is given by r W=

f dr 0

Substituting Eq. (2.44) for f , we have r W=

kr dr

(2.45)

and solving Eq. (2.45) shows the work done in stretching the rubber band to be W=

kr 2 . 2

(2.46)

Since in this example k is equal to 10 N/m, the ultimate strength of the elastic cord,

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

31

5 N, is reached when the rubber band is extended to 0.5 m. With these numerical values, Eq. (2.46) may be solved:

W=

10

N × (0.5 m)2 N m = 1.25 = 1.25 J. 2 m

Therefore, of the 11 19 J lost by block A in its collision with block B, 1.25 J are dissipated in breaking the elastic cord (the binding energy) that holds block B. The kinetic energy of block B, using Eq. (2.43), is E B = 11.11 − 1.25 = 9.86 J. 1 mv 2 2 1 9.86 J = (2 kg)v 2 2 m v = 3.14 s 9.86 J =

If block A had less than 1.25 J of kinetic energy, the elastic cord would not have been broken; the restoring force in the elastic cord would have pulled block B back and caused it to oscillate about its equilibrium position. (For this oscillation to actually occur, block A would have to be withdrawn immediately after the collision, otherwise block B, on its rebound, would transfer its energy back to block A and send it back with the same velocity that it had before the ﬁrst collision. The net effect of the two collisions, then, would have been only the reversal of the direction in which block A traveled.)

Waves Energy may be transmitted by disturbing a “medium,” permitting the disturbance to travel through the medium, and then collecting the energy with a suitable receiver. For example, if work is done in raising a stone and the stone is dropped into water, the potential energy of the stone before being dropped is converted into kinetic energy, which is then transferred to the water when the stone strikes. The energy gained by the water disturbs it and causes it to move up and down. This disturbance spreads out from the point of the initial disturbance at a velocity characteristic of the medium (in this case, the water). The energy can be “received” at a remote distance from the point of the initial disturbance by a bob that ﬂoats on the water. The wave, in passing by the bob, will cause the bob to move up and down, thereby imparting energy to it. It should be noted here that the water moves only in a vertical direction while the disturbance moves in the horizontal direction. Displacement of water upward from the undisturbed surface produces a crest, while downward displacement results in a trough. The amplitude of a wave is a measure of the vertical displacement, and the distance between corresponding points on adjacent disturbances is called the wavelength (Fig. 2-11). (The wavelength is usually represented by the Greek letter lambda, λ.) The number of disturbances per second

32

CHAPTER 2

Figure 2-11. Graphical representation of a wave.

at any point in the medium is called the frequency. The velocity with which a wave (disturbance) travels is equal to the product of the wavelength and the frequency, v = f × λ.

W

(2.47)

EXAMPLE 2.14

Sound waves, which are disturbances in the air, travel through air at a velocity of 344 m/s. Middle C has a frequency of 264 Hz (cycles per second). Calculate the wavelength of this note. Solution m 344 v s = 1.3 m. λ= = 1 f 264 s If more than one disturbance passes through a medium at the same time, then, where the respective waves meet, the total displacement of the medium is equal to the algebraic sum of the two waves. For example, if two rocks are dropped into a pond, then, if the crests of the two waves should coincide as the waves pass each other, the resulting crest is equal to the height of the two separate crests and the trough is as deep as the sum of the two individual troughs, as shown in Figure 2-12. If, on the other hand, the two waves are exactly out of phase, that is, if the crest of one

Figure 2-12. The addition of two waves of equal frequency and in phase.

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

33

Figure 2-13. The addition of two waves of equal frequency but different amplitude and 180◦ out of phase.

coincides with the trough of the other, then the positive and negative displacements cancel each other, as shown in Figure 2-13. If, in Figure 2-13, wave 1 and wave 2 are of exactly the same amplitude as well as the same frequency, there would be no net disturbance. For the more general case, in which the component waves are of different frequencies, different amplitudes, and only partly out of phase, complex waveforms may be formed, as seen below in Figure 2-14.

Electromagnetic Waves In 1820, Christian Oersted, a Danish physicist, observed that a compass needle deﬂected whenever it was placed in the vicinity of a current-carrying wire. He thus discovered the intimate relationship between electricity and magnetism and found that a magnetic ﬂux coaxial with the wire is always induced in the space around a current-carrying wire. Furthermore, he found that the direction of deﬂection of the compass needle depended on the direction of the electric current, thus showing that the induced magnetic ﬂux has direction as well as magnitude. The direction of the induced magnetic ﬂux can be determined by the “right-hand rule”: If the ﬁngers of the right hand are curled around the wire, as though grasping the wire, with the thumb outstretched and pointing in the direction of conventional current ﬂow, then the curled ﬁngers point in the direction of the induced magnetic ﬂux. If two parallel, current-carrying wires are near each other, they either attract or repel one another, depending on whether the currents ﬂow in the same or in opposite directions. The attractive or repulsive force F per unit length l of wire, as shown in Figure 2-15, is proportional to the product of the currents and inversely proportional to the distance between the wires. i1 × i2 F i1 × i2 ∝ = km × . l r r

Figure 2-14. Complex wave formed by the algebraic addition of two different pure waves.

(2.48)

34

CHAPTER 2

Figure 2-15. Force between two parallel current-carrying wires. The force, attractive in this case, is due to the magnetic ﬁelds (shown by the circular lines in the end view) that are generated by the electric current.

If the current-carrying wires are in free space (or in air) and if i 1 and i 2 are 1 A each and if the distance r between the wires is 1 m, then the force per unit length of wire is found to be N F = 2 × 10−7 . l m The constant of proportionality km , therefore, is equal to 2 × 10−7 N/A2 . It is convenient to deﬁne km in terms of another constant, μ0 : km =

μ0 N = 2 × 10−7 2 2π A

(2.49a)

N . (2.49b) A2 μ0 is called the permeability of free space. Permeability is a property of the medium in which magnetic ﬂux is established. The permeability of any medium other than free space is designated by μ. The relative permeability of any medium, K m is deﬁned by μ0 = 4π × 10−7

Km =

μ . μ0

(2.50)

Iron, cobalt, nickel, and gadolinium have high values of relative permeability, that is, K m = 1; these substances we call ferromagnetic. Those substances—such as silver, copper, and bismuth—whose relative permeability is less than 1 are said to be diamagnetic. Most substances, including all biological materials, have relative permeabilities of 1 or slightly greater; these materials are called paramagnetic. The unit of magnetic ﬂux is called the weber (Wb): 1 Wb = 1

J A

(2.51)

and the unit of ﬂux density, which is a measure of magnetic intensity, is called the tesla (after the Croatian-born American electrical engineer Nikola Tesla), denoted by symbol T: 1T = 1

Wb . m2

(2.52)

35

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

In the cgs system, the unit for magnetic ﬂux is called the maxwell, and the unit for ﬂux density is called the gauss, where 1 T = 10,000 gauss. Since joules = newtons × meters, the dimensions of μ0 may be written as μ0 = 4π × 10−7

J . A2 · m

Furthermore, since webers × amperes = joules, μ0 may also be expressed as μ0 = 4π × 10−7

Wb . A·m

The magnetic ﬂux density, symbolized by B, at a distance r from a wire carrying a current i is given by B=

W

μ0 i Wb × = 2. 2π r m

(2.53)

EXAMPLE 2.15

What is the magnetic ﬂux density at a distance of 0.1 m from a wire that carries a current of 0.25 A? Solution Substituting the numerical values into Eq. (2.53) yields Wb A · m × 0.25 A B= 2π 0.1 m Wb = 5 × 10−7 2 = 5 × 10−7 T. m 4π × 10−7

In comparison, the magnetic ﬂux density at the equator is about 3 × 10−5 T.

Any region in which there is a magnetic ﬂux is called a magnetic ﬁeld, and the ﬁeld intensity (or ﬁeld strength) is directly proportional to the magnetic ﬂux density. Since magnetic ﬂux has direction as well as magnitude, magnetic ﬁeld strength is a vector quantity. Michael Faraday, a Scottish experimental physicist, found in 1831 that electricity could be generated from a magnetic ﬁeld and that electricity and magnetism were related.

36

CHAPTER 2

In 1873, James Clerk Maxwell, a Scottish physicist, published a general theory that related the experimental ﬁndings of Oersted and Faraday. He deduced the quantitative relationships among moving charged particles, magnetic ﬁelds, and electric ﬁelds and formulated an electromagnetic theory that described quantitatively the interaction between moving electric charges and magnetic ﬁelds. His theory states that a changing electric ﬁeld is always associated with a changing magnetic ﬁeld and a changing magnetic ﬁeld is always associated with a changing electric ﬁeld. He showed that an oscillating electric circuit will create an electromagnetic wave as the ﬂowing electrons in the circuit undergo continuous acceleration and deceleration as the current oscillates. When this happens, some of the energy of the charged particle is radiated as electromagnetic radiation. This phenomenon is the basis of radio transmission, in which electrons are accelerated up and down an antenna that is connected to an oscillator. The electromagnetic wave thus generated has a frequency equal to that of the oscillator and a velocity of 3 × 108 m/s in free space. The waves consist of oscillating electric and magnetic ﬁelds that are perpendicular to each other and are mutually perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave (Fig. 2-16). The energy carried by the waves depends on the strength of the associated electric and magnetic ﬁelds. In dealing with electromagnetic waves, it is more convenient to describe the magnetic component in terms of magnetic ﬁeld strength H rather than in terms of magnetic ﬂux density B. H can be considered as the magnetizing force that leads to the magnetic ﬁeld of ﬂux density B. In free space, magnetic ﬁeld strength H is related to magnetic ﬂux density B by Wb m2 = B A . H= Wb μ0 m μ0 A·m B

(2.54)

Since B has dimensions of Wb/m2 and μ0 has dimensions of Wb/(A · m), the dimensions of magnetic ﬁeld strength, H, are A/m. In any medium other than air, the magnetic ﬂux density is equal to the product of the magnetic ﬁeld strength H and the magnetic permeability of that medium, μ. Safety standards for magnetic ﬁeld strength are listed in terms of amperes per meter. Thus, in Example 2.15, the magnetic ﬂux density of 5 × 10−7 T corresponds to a magnetic ﬁeld strength of 0.4 A/m.

ε

c

ε H Ho Figure 2-16. Schematic representation of an electromagnetic wave. The electric intensity ε and the magnetic intensity H are at right angles to each other, and the two are mutually perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave. The velocity of propagation is c, the electric intensity is ε = ε0 sin 2π /λ (x − ct), and the magnetic intensity is H = H0 sin 2π /λ (x − ct). The plane of polarization is the plane containing the electric ﬁeld vector.

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

37

The relationship between the peak magnetic and electric ﬁeld intensities H0 and ε 0 depends on the magnetic permeability μ and the electrical permittivity ∈ of the medium through which the electromagnetic wave is propagating. This relationship is given by √ √ H0 μ = ε0 ∈,

(2.55)

where ∈ is the permittivity of the medium. Permittivity is a measure of the capacity for storing energy in a medium that is in an electric ﬁeld. The permittivity of free space is ∈0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C2 /N · m2 , and the permittivity of any other medium is the product of the relative permittivity, k∈ and the permittivity of free space, ∈0 : ∈= k∈ × ∈0 . The greater the value of ∈, the greater is its interaction with the ε ﬁeld and the greater is its ability to store energy. Permittivity is frequency dependent and generally decreases with increasing frequency. If the wave is traveling through free space, then √ √ H0 μ0 = ε0 ∈0 .

(2.56)

Radio waves, microwaves (radar), infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet light, and X-rays are all electromagnetic radiations. They are qualitatively alike but differ in wavelength to form a continuous electromagnetic spectrum. All these radiations are transmitted through the atmosphere (which may be considered, for this purpose, as free space) at a speed very close to 3 × 108 m/s. Since the speed of all electromagnetic waves in free space is a constant, Eq. (2.47), when applied to electromagnetic waves in free space, becomes c = 3 × 108 m/s = f × λ.

(2.57)

Specifying either the frequency or wavelength of an electromagnetic wave in free space is equivalent to specifying both. Free-space wavelengths may range from 5 × 106 m for 60-Hz electric waves through visible light (green light has a wavelength of about 500 nanometers, or nm, and a frequency of 6 × 1014 Hz) to short-wavelength X- and gamma radiation (whose wavelengths are on the order of 10 nm or less). There is no sharp cutoff in wavelength at either end of the spectrum nor is there a sharp dividing line between the various portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Each portion blends into the next, and the lines of demarcation, shown in Figure 2-17, are arbitrarily placed to show the approximate wavelength span of the regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Figure 2-17. The electromagnetic spectrum.

38

CHAPTER 2

Generally, the speed of an electromagnetic wave in any medium depends on the electrical and magnetic properties of that medium: on the permittivity and the permeability. The speed is given by 1 . (2.58) v= ∈μ In free space, N A 1

μ = μ0 = 4π × 10−7 ∈ = ∈0 = 4π × 9 ×

109

N · m2 C2

.

Substituting the values above into Eq. (2.58) gives the speed c of an electromagnetic wave in free space: ⎞1/2 ⎛ 2 9 N·m 4π × 9 × 10 ⎜ C2 ⎟ ⎟ = 3 × 108 m . v=c =⎜ ⎠ ⎝ N −7 s 4π × 10 A2 An electromagnetic wave travels more slowly through a medium than through free space. The frequency of the electromagnetic wave is independent of the medium through which it travels. The wavelength is decreased, however, so that the relationship (Eq. [2.47]): v = f ×λ is maintained. The wavelength in a medium is given by 1 , λ = λ0 Ke Km

(2.59)

where λ0 is the free-space wavelength and K e and K m are the relative permittivity (dielectric coefﬁcient) and relative permeability of the medium, respectively. Since the relative permeability is ≈ 1 for most biological materials and dielectrics, we can approximate Eq. (2.59) for most biological materials by 1 λ = λ0 . (2.60) Ke If the medium is a lossy dielectric (a lossy dielectric is one that absorbs energy from an electromagnetic ﬁeld; all biological media are lossy), the wavelength of our electromagnetic wave within the medium is given by σ 2 −1/2 1 1 λ0 + 1+ (2.61) λ= √ ω∈ Ke 2 2

39

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

or, in terms of the loss tangent, !

λ0 λ= √ Ke

1 1+ + 1 + tan2 δ 2 2

"−1/2

,

(2.62)

where λ0 = free space wavelength, K e = dielectric coefﬁcient, σ = conductivity, in reciprocal ohm meters, or siemens per meter, ω = 2π× frequency, ∈ =Ke ∈0 , and tan2 δ =

W

σ 2 = loss tangent. ω∈

(2.63)

EXAMPLE 2.16

The dielectric coefﬁcient for brain tissue is K e = 82 and the resistivity is ρ = 1.88 ohm-meters at 100 MHz. What is the wavelength of this radiation in the brain? Solution 3 × 108 m/s c = =3m 1 f 6 100 × 10 s σ 2 σ 2 = tan2 δ = ω∈ ωK e ∈0 ⎛ 1 ⎜ 1.88 =⎜ ⎝ 2π × 100 × 106 × 82 × λ0 =

⎞2 ⎟ ⎟ = 1.36 ⎠ 1 9 4π × 9 × 10

−1/2 , 1 1 + 1 + tan2 δ 2 2 −1/2 3 1 1√ + λ= √ 2.36 = 0.3 m. 82 2 2 λ0 λ= √ Ke

40

CHAPTER 2

Figure 2-18. A circuit having a capacitance C and a resistance R in series with a voltage source V.

The loss tangent is a measure of energy absorption by a medium through which an electromagnetic wave passes; energy absorption by the medium is directly proportional to the loss tangent. The loss tangent is deﬁned as Loss tangent =

conduction current displacement current

(2.64)

Conduction current is the ordinary current that consists of a ﬂow of electrons across a potential difference in a circuit. Since no dielectric material is a perfect insulator, some small conduction current will ﬂow through any insulating material under the inﬂuence of a potential difference. Displacement is a concept proposed by Maxwell to account for the apparent ﬂow of current through an insulator—even a perfect insulator—under the action of a changing voltage. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 2-18, a capacitor (whose dielectric is a perfect insulator), a resistor, a switch, and a battery are connected in series. While the switch is open, plate a of the capacitor is at the same potential as the positive terminal of the battery to which it is connected through the resistor. When the switch is closed, plate b of the capacitor is connected to the negative pole of the battery, and the capacitor begins to charge under the inﬂuence of the potential across the plates. Since the dielectric in this circuit is a perfect insulator, clearly no current can ﬂow through the dielectric. However, connecting the plates of the capacitor to the battery terminals causes electrons to pile up on the negative plate and to be drained off from the positive plate. That is, electrons ﬂow onto the plate connected to the negative terminal and ﬂow from the other plate to the positive terminal until an equilibrium is reached when no more charge ﬂows. Thus, during the time that the capacitor is charging, the circuit behaves as if current were ﬂowing through every portion of the circuit, including the dielectric. This apparent current ﬂowing through the dielectric is called the displacement current. Since no real dielectric is a perfect insulator, there always is a conduction current through the dielectric in addition to the displacement current. Furthermore, since a conduction current is always accompanied by energy loss through joule heating, there always is some loss of energy when a dielectric is placed in an electric ﬁeld. While the capacitor is charging, the displacement current in the circuit is given by i=

V −t/RC e , R

(2.65)

and the voltage across the capacitor is given by VC = V (1 − e −t/RC )

(2.66)

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

41

where t = time after closing the switch (in seconds), R = resistance (in ohms), C = capacitance (in farads), VC = voltage across capacitor, and V = battery voltage. The product RC is called the time constant of the circuit and represents the time (in seconds) after closing the switch, until the current decreases to 1/e , or 37% of the initial current, and the voltage increases to V0 (1 − 1/e ), or 67% of its ﬁnal voltage. A charged capacitor in a circuit with a series resistor may be considered as the equivalent of a battery whose voltage, Vi , is the voltage across the capacitor. When such a circuit is closed, the capacitor will discharge through the resistor and the capacitor’s voltage, VC , will decrease according to Vc = Vi e −t/RC ,

(2.67)

and the charge on each plate of the capacitor is given by Q = C VC .

(2.68)

Impedance While electric current in a circuit is transmitted as electrons ﬂow through conducting wires, electromagnetic waves are transmitted as disturbances in the electromagnetic ﬁelds established in various media, including a vacuum (free space). The electric and magnetic components of the ﬁeld may be considered the analogs of voltage and current in an electrical circuit. The impedance Z of an alternating current is given by Ohm’s law: Z=

V , i

(2.69)

where i is the current ﬂow due to the voltage V . By analogy, the impedance of a medium through which an electromagnetic wave is propagated is given by Z=

ε0 , H0

(2.70)

where ε 0 and H0 are the electric and magnetic ﬁeld strengths respectively. Using the relationship given by Eq. (2.55), √ √ H0 μ = ε0 ∈, we can rewrite Eq. (2.70) as Z=

μ . ∈

(2.71)

42

CHAPTER 2

In free space, μ = μ0 = 4π × 10−7

N A2

1

∈ = ∈0 = 4π × 9 ×

109

N · m2 C2

.

Using these values in Eq. (2.71), one obtains ⎤1/2

⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ Z =⎢ ⎢⎛ ⎢ ⎢⎜ ⎢⎜ ⎣⎝

4π × 10−7

N A2

1 4π · 9 × 109

N·m C2

⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎞⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ 2 ⎠⎦

= 377 ,

which is the impedance of free space. In an electric circuit, the power dissipated in a load whose impedance is Z ohms, across which the voltage drop is V volts and the current is i amperes, is given by P =

V2 = i 2 Z. Z

(2.72)

W The analogous quantities in an electromagnetic ﬁeld of mean power density P 2 m V , are related by and effective electric ﬁeld strength, ε m ε0 2 √ (ε)2 H0 2 2 P= × Z, (2.73) = = √ Z Z 2 where √ ε 0 is the maximum value of the sinusoidally varying electric ﬁeld strength and ε 0 / 2 is the effective or root-mean-square (rms) value of the electric ﬁeld strength. In free space, where Z = 377 ohms, the effective power density corresponding to V is ε0 = 1 m P =

1 2 √ W mW 2 = 1.33 × 10−3 2 = 1.33 × 10−4 . 377 m cm2

Energy in an electromagnetic wave is transported in a direction mutually perpendicular to the electric and magnetic ﬁeld vectors, as shown in Figure 2-16. The instantaneous rate of energy ﬂow in an electromagnetic wave through a unit area perpendicular to the direction of propagation is given by the vector product P¯ = ε × H.

(2.74)

43

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

The vector P , which represents the ﬂow of energy, is called the Poynting vector. Since the instantaneous values √ of ε and H √ vary sinusoidally from 0 to their maxima, their effective values are ε0 / 2 and H0 / 2. Since the magnetic and electric ﬁeld vectors are always at 90◦ to each other, Eq. (2.72) may be rewritten as ε0 H0 1 P = √ × √ = ε0 H0 . 2 2 2

W

(2.75)

EXAMPLE 2.17

V . What is the The electric ﬁeld intensity ε 0 of a plane electromagnetic wave is 1 m average power density perpendicular to the direction of the propagation of the wave? Solution From Eq. (2.73), the average power density is P =

1 ε0 H0 , 2

and from Eq. (2.56), H0 is found to be ∈0 . H0 = ε0 μ0 If we substitute the expression above for H0 into Eq. (2.73), and insert the numerical values for ∈0 and for μ 0, we have -⎛ ⎞ . . .⎜ ⎟ 1 .⎝ . 2 ⎠ N · m . 4π · 9×109 V V . 1 / C2 1 1 2 P = −7 2 m m 4π × 10 AN2 = 1.33 × 10−3 = 1.33 × 10−4

W m2 mW . cm2

For health physics purposes, the electromagnetic spectrum may be divided into two major portions: One portion, called ionizing radiation, extends from the shortest wavelengths to about several nanometers. Electromagnetic radiation of these wavelengths include X-rays and gamma rays (X-rays and gamma rays are exactly the same type of radiations; they differ only in their manner of origin. Once created, it is impossible to distinguish between these two types.). Electromagnetic radiation whose wavelength exceeds that of ionizing radiation is called nonionizing radiation. In this

44

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region, the health physicist is interested mainly in laser radiation—which includes ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light—and in the high-frequency bands from about 3 megahertz (MHz) to 300 gigahertz (GHz). Although ultraviolet light is capable of producing ions, it nevertheless is considered as a nonionizing radiation in the context of radiation safety.

QUANTUM THEORY The representation of light and other electromagnetic radiations as a continuous train of periodic disturbances or a “wave train” in an electromagnetic ﬁeld is a satisfactory model that can be used to explain many physical phenomena and can serve as a basis for the design of apparatus for transmitting and receiving electromagnetic energy. According to this wave theory, or the classical theory, as it is often called, the amount of energy transmitted by a wave is proportional to the square of the amplitude of the wave. This model, despite its usefulness, fails to predict certain phenomena in the ﬁeld of modern physics. Accordingly, a new model for electromagnetic radiation was postulated, one that could “explain” certain phenomena which were not amenable to explanation by wave theory. It should be emphasized that hypothesizing a new theory was not synonymous with abandoning the former theory. Models or theories are useful insofar as they describe observed phenomena and permit prediction of the consequences of certain actions. Philosophically, most scientists subscribe to the school of thought known as “logical positivism.” According to this philosophy, there is no way to discover or to verify an absolute truth. Science is not concerned with absolute truth or reality—it is concerned with giving the simplest possible uniﬁed description of as many experimental ﬁndings as possible. It follows, therefore, that several different theories on the nature of electromagnetic radiation (or for the nature of matter, energy, electricity, etc.) are perfectly acceptable provided that each theory is capable of explaining experimentally observed facts that the others cannot explain. Experimental observations on the nature of electromagnetic radiation, such as the radiation emitted from heated bodies, the photoelectric effect, and Compton scattering could not be explained by classical wave theory. This led to the development of the current theory of electromagnetic radiation, which is called the quantum theory. According to this theory, electromagnetic radiation consists of discrete “corpuscles” or “particles” of energy that travel in space at a speed of 3 × 108 m/s. Each particle or “quantum,” as it is called, contains a discrete quantity of electromagnetic energy. The energy content of a quantum is proportional to the frequency when it is considered as a wave, and is given by the relationship E = h f.

(2.76)

The symbol h is called Planck’s constant and is a fundamental constant of nature whose magnitude in SI units is h = 6.6 × 10−34 J · s. The energy E in Eq. (2.74) therefore is in joules and the frequency is in hertz. After substituting the value of f from Eq. (2.57) into Eq. (2.74), we have c E =h . λ

(2.77)

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45

A quantum of electromagnetic energy is also called a photon. Equations (2.76) and (2.77) show that a photon is completely described when either its energy, frequency, or wavelength is given.

W

EXAMPLE 2.18

(a) Radio station KDKA in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, broadcasts on a carrier frequency of 1020 kHz. (1) What is the wavelength of the carrier frequency? Solution λf = c

m 3 × 108 c s λ= = = 294 m. 3 f 1.02 × 10 kHz × 103 Hz kHz

(2) What is energy of the KDKA photon in joules and electron volts? Solution E = hf = 6.626 × 10−34 J · s × 1.02 × 106

1 s

= 6.8 × 10−28 J and 6.8 × 10−28 J J 1.6 × 10−19 eV = 4.2 × 10−9 eV

E =

(b) What is the energy, in electron volts, of an X-ray photon whose wavelength is 1 × 10−10 m? Solution E =h =

c λ

6.626 × 10−34 J · s × 3 × 108 10−10 m × 1.6 × 10−19

= 1.24 × 104 eV

J eV

m s

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The wavelengths of X-rays and gamma rays are very short: on the order of 10−10 m or less. Because of this, and in order to avoid writing the factor 10−10 repeatedly, another unit of length called the angstrom unit is commonly used in X-ray work and ˚ is equal to 1 × 10−10 m or 1 in health physics. The angstrom unit, symbolized by A, −8 × 10 cm. Another unit of length that is often used is the nanometer (nm). One ˚ nm represents 1 × 10−9 m, which is equal to 10 A. It may seem strange that having found the wave theory of electromagnetic radiation inadequate to explain certain observed physical phenomena we should incorporate part of the wave model into the quantum model of electromagnetic radiation. This dualism, however, seems to be inherent in the “explanations” of atomic and nuclear physics. Mass and energy—particle and wave, in the case of electromagnetic energy—and, as will be shown below, wave and particle in the case of subatomic particles, all are part of a dualism in nature; either aspect of this dualism can be demonstrated in the laboratory by appropriate experiments. If the experiment is designed to recognize a particle, a particle will be found. If, on the other hand, an experiment is designed to recognize radiation from the same source as waves, the results show that the same radiation that had been previously identiﬁed as being particulate in nature is now a wave! In the case of the photon, some degree of correspondence with the classical picture of electromagnetic radiation can be demonstrated by a simple thought experiment. It is conceivable that, given a very large number of waves of different frequencies and amplitudes, a wave packet, or quantum, could result from reinforcement of the waves over a very limited region and complete interference ahead and behind of the region of reinforcement. Figure 2-19 is an attempt to graphically portray such a phenomenon. The model of a photon shown in Figure 2-19 combines wave properties and particle properties. Furthermore, this model suggests that a photon may be considered a moving particle that is guided in its path by the waves that combine to produce the particle. The “mass” of a photon may be found by equating its energy with the relativistic energy of a moving particle. E = h f = mc 2 ,

(2.78a)

Figure 2-19. Possible combination of electromagnetic waves to produce a wave packet, a quantum of electromagnetic energy called a photon. The energy content of the photon is E = hc/λ.

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47

therefore, hf . c2

m=

(2.78b)

The “momentum” p of the photon is p = mc =

hf . c

(2.79)

If the value of f from Eq. (2.57) is substituted into Eq. (2.79), we have p=

h , λ

(2.80)

and the energy of the photon, in terms of its momentum, is E = pc .

(2.81)

Matter Waves In 1924, Louis de Broglie, a French physicist, suggested that all moving particles were associated with wave properties. The length of these waves, according to de Broglie, was inversely proportional to the momentum of the moving particle and the constant of proportionality was Planck’s constant h. The length of these matter waves is given by Eq. (2.77b). Since momentum p is equal to mv, Eq. (2.77b) may be rewritten as λ=

h . mv

(2.82)

Here too, as in the case of the photon, we have in the same equation, properties characteristic of particles and properties characteristic of waves. The mass of the moving particle m in Eq. (2.79) represents a particle, while λ, the wavelength of the “matter wave” associated with the moving particle, is quite clearly a wave concept. The fact that moving particles possess wave properties is the basis of the electron microscope. In any kind of microscope, whether using beams of light waves or beams of de Broglie matter waves, the resolving power (the ability to separate two points that are close together, or the ability to see the edges of a very small object sharply and distinctly) is an inverse function of the wavelength of the probing beam; a shorter wavelength leads to greater resolution than a longer wavelength. For this reason, optical microscopes are usually illuminated with blue light since blue is near the short-wavelength end of the visible spectrum. Under optimum conditions, the limit of resolution of an optical microscope, using blue light whose wavelength is ˚ is of the order of 100 nm. Since high-velocity electrons are associated about 4000 A, with very much shorter wavelengths than blue light, an electron microscope, which uses a beam of electrons instead of visible light, has a much greater resolving power than the best optical microscope. Since useful magniﬁcation is limited by resolving power, the increased resolution of an electron microscope permits much greater useful magniﬁcation than could be obtained with an optical microscope.

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W

EXAMPLE 2.19

What is the de Broglie wavelength of an electron that is accelerated across a potential difference of 100,000 V? Solution According to Eq. (2.20), the kinetic energy of a moving particle with a velocity v = βc is # $ 1 2 −1 , E k = m0c + 1 − β2 from which it follows that + m 0c 2 = 1 − β 2. 2 E k + m 0c

(2.83)

In Example 2.7, we found that m 0 c 2 for an electron is 5.1 × 105 eV. We therefore have, after substituting the appropriate numerical values into Eq. (2.80), + 5.1 × 105 eV = 1 − β2 5 1 × 105 eV + 5.1 × 10 eV + 0.836 = 1 − β 2 (0.836)2 = 1 − β 2 β = 0.55 The momentum of the electron is p = mv = +

=

m0 1 − β2

βc

9.11 × 10−31 kg × 0.55 × 3 × 108

= 1.8 × 10−22

m s

0.836 kg · m s

and the de Broglie wavelength, consequently is λ=

6.626 × 10−34 J · s h = p 1.8 × 10−22 kg · m/s = 3.7 × 10−12 m = 0.037 A˚

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49

The wave–particle dualism may seem especially abstract when it is extended to include particles of matter whose existence may be conﬁrmed by our experience, our senses, and our intuition. At ﬁrst it may seem that the wave properties of particles are purely mathematical ﬁgments of our imagination whose only purpose is to quantitatively describe experimental phenomena that are not otherwise amenable to theoretical analysis. Even in this regard, the wave–particle dualism serves a useful purpose. It is possible to give a physical interpretation of matter waves. According to the physical theory of waves, the intensity of a wave is proportional to the square of the amplitude of the wave. In 1926, Max Born applied this concept to the wave properties of matter. In the case of a beam of electrons, the square of the amplitude of the electron waves was postulated to be proportional to the intensity of the electron beam or to the number of electrons per square centimeter per second incident on a plane perpendicular to the direction of the beam. If this beam should strike a crystal, as in the case shown in Figure 2-20, the reﬂected electron waves would either reinforce or interfere with each other to produce an interference pattern. The waves are reinforced most strongly at certain points and at other points are exactly out of phase, thereby canceling each other out. Where reinforcement occurs, we observe a maximum density of electrons, whereas interference results in a decrease in electron density. The exact distribution of the interference pattern is determined by the crystalline structure of the scatterer and therefore is uniquely representative of the scatterer. The duality of nature was further veriﬁed in 1927 when two experimenters in the Bell Telephone Laboratories, Davisson and Germer, found a beam of electrons to behave like a wave (Fig. 2-20). When they bombarded a nickel crystal with a ﬁne beam of electrons whose kinetic energy was 54 eV, they found the electrons to be reﬂected only in certain directions, rather than isotropically as expected. Only at angles of 50◦ and 0◦ (directly backscattered) were scattered electrons detected. Such a behavior was unexplainable if the bombarding electrons were considered to be particles. By assuming them to be waves, however, the observed distribution of scattered electrons could easily be explained. The explanation was that the electron “waves” underwent destructive interference at all angles except those at which they were observed; there the electron waves reinforced each other. At the same time the British physicist G.P. Thomson (son of the 1906 Nobel laureate in physics, J.J. Thomson), working at the University of Aberdeen, found that a beam of high-energy

Figure 2-20. Experiment of Davisson and Germer suggesting the wave nature of electrons.

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electrons could be diffracted by a thin metal foil, thereby demonstrating the wave properties of electrons. For their work in verifying the wave–particle duality, Davisson, Germer, and Thomson were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1937. Earlier, in 1927, A.H. Compton received the Nobel Prize for demonstrating the particle properties of electromagnetic waves. These experiments led to the development of electron diffraction methods used by physical chemists to identify unknowns. For a beam of electrons, this relationship between wave and particle properties seems reasonable. In the case of a single electron, however, the electron wave must be interpreted differently. If, instead of bombarding the crystal in Figure 2-20 with a beam of electrons, the electrons were ﬁred at the crystal one at a time and each scattered electron were detected, the single electrons would be found scattered through the same angles as the beam of electrons. The exact coordinates of any particular electron, however, would not be known until it was “seen” by the electron detector. After ﬁring the same number of single electrons as those in the beam and plotting the position of each scattered electron, exactly the same “interference” pattern would be observed as in the case of a beam off electron waves. This experiment shows that, although the behavior of a single electron cannot be precisely predicted, the behavior of a group of electrons can be predicted. From this, it was inferred that the scattering of a single electron was a stochastic event and that the square of the amplitude at any point on the curve of position versus electron intensity gives the probability of a single electron being scattered through that point.

Uncertainty Principle The implication of Born’s probability interpretation of the wave properties of matter were truly revolutionary. According to classical physics, if the position, mass, velocity, and all the external forces on a particle are known, then, in principle, all of its future actions could be precisely predicted. According to the wave-mechanical model, however, precise predictions are not possible—probability replaces certainty. Werner Heisenberg, in 1927, developed these ideas still further and postulated his uncertainty theory in which he said that it is impossible, in principle, to know both the exact location and momentum of a moving particle at any point in time. Any one of these two quantities could be determined to any desired degree of accuracy. The accuracy of one quantity, however, decreases as the precision of the other quantity increases. The product of the two uncertainties was shown by Heisenberg to be proportional to Planck’s constant h and to be given by the relationship x × p ≥

h . 2π

(2.84)

It should be emphasized that the uncertainty expressed by Heisenberg is not due to faulty measuring tools or techniques or due to experimental errors. It is a fundamental limitation of nature, which is due to the fact that any measurement must disturb the object being measured. Precise knowledge about anything can therefore never be attained. In many instances, this inherent uncertainty can be understood intuitively. When students are being tested, for example, it is common knowledge that they may become tense or suffer some other psychological stress that may cast some doubt on the accuracy of the test results. In any case, the tester cannot be absolutely

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51

certain that the psychological stress of the examination did not inﬂuence the results of the examination. The uncertainty expressed by Eq. (2.84) can be illustrated by an example in which we try to locate a particle by looking at it. To “see” a particle means that light is reﬂected from the particle into the eye. When a quantum of light strikes the particle and is reﬂected toward the eye, some energy is transferred from the quantum to the particle, thereby changing both the position and momentum of the particle. The reﬂected photon tells the observer where the particle was, not where it is.

SUMMARY The scientiﬁc basis of health physics is the transfer of energy from a radiation ﬁeld to a biological system or to a nonliving medium. The quantitative aspects of energy transfer are important because radiation bioeffects are dependent on the quantity of energy absorbed by the living system. All measurements include a standard amount (or a unit amount) of the quantity being measured, such as a gram when we are measuring mass, and the number of such units. The centimeter–gram–second (cgs) system of units was originally used in health physics. In this system, energy and work are measured in ergs and the concentration of absorbed energy is measured in ergs per gram. Although the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission continues to use the cgs system in its regulations, the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements changed from using the cgs system of units to the International System of Units commonly called the SI system. The SI system is based on kilogram–meter–second (mks) units. In this system, the unit of energy is the joule ( J) and the concentration of energy is expressed in joules per kilogram. Power, which is deﬁned as the rate of energy expenditure, is expressed in watts (W) and is deﬁned as 1W = 1 J/s. Energy may be classiﬁed either as potential or kinetic energy or by its physical form such as electrical, mechanical, chemical, heat, electromagnetic, or nuclear. Potential energy is stored and is not doing any work. Potential energy can be converted into kinetic energy, which is deﬁned as the energy of a moving body. Kinetic energy is expended in doing work. The total energy in a system is the sum of potential and kinetic energies. According to classical physics, both mass and energy are independent entities and neither one can be created or destroyed. They can only be changed from one form into another. Thus, energy can be changed from chemical to heat to mechanical to electrical, as in the case of generation of electricity in a fossil fuel power plant. Matter can be changed from solid to liquid to gas and from one substance into another, as in the case of chemical reactions. According to modern physics, mass and energy are different manifestations of the same thing. One of Einstein’s principles of relativity says that the energy equivalence of mass is directly proportional to the speed of light squared: E = mc2 . Since, according to Einstein, nothing can move as fast as the speed of light, energy that is added to a body whose speed is approaching that of light appears as increased mass rather than as increased speed. The elements may be considered to consist of three elementary particles: one electrically neutral particle called a neutron and two electrically charged particles called proton and electron. (Neutrons and protons, in turn, are believed to be made of still more fundamental particles called quarks.). Although the proton and the electron have the same amount of charge, they are qualitatively different; the protons

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are positively charged and electrons are negatively charged. The unit for measuring the quantity of electric charge is the coulomb (C) and the charge on the electron and on the proton is 1.6 × 10−19 C. Charged particles establish electric ﬁelds that exert repulsive forces on like charged particles and attractive forces on unlike charged particles. The electric potential at a point in an electric ﬁeld, which is expressed in units of volts (V), is a measure of the potential energy of a charged particle at that point. The potential energy of an electron in a ﬁeld where the potential is 1 V is 1 V × 1.6 × 10−19 C = 1.6 × 10−19 J. Based on this relationship, we deﬁne a special unit of energy, the electron volt (eV) as 1 eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J. A potential difference of 1 V exists between two points in an electric ﬁeld if 1 J of energy is expended in moving I C of charge between the two points. Electric current is a ﬂow of charged particles and is measured in amperes (A). One ampere represents a ﬂow of 1 C/s. A moving electrically charged particle or an electric current ﬂowing through a conductor generates a magnetic ﬁeld. Thus, moving charges and electric currents have associated electric and magnetic ﬁelds called electromagnetic ﬁelds or electromagnetic radiation. The magnitude of the electromagnetic ﬁeld is expressed in units of volts per meter (V/m) and the magnetic ﬁeld in units of amperes per meter (A/m). The intensities of these ﬁelds vary sinusoidally with time. Therefore, an electromagnetic ﬁeld can be described by a sine wave where the amplitude of the wave at any particular time represents the instantaneous magnitude of the electric or magnetic ﬁeld at that time. In this representation, the energy content of the electromagnetic wave is proportional to the square of the amplitude of the sine wave. Once generated, the electromagnetic radiations travel through space at a speed c , which is very close to 3 × 108 m/s. The frequency f and wavelength λ of the sine wave representation of an electromagnetic ﬁeld are related by f × λ = c. Radio waves, microwaves, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays are all parts of the continuous electromagnetic spectrum; they differ only in wavelengths and frequencies. Certain phenomena that had been observed in experiments with light were not amenable to explanation in terms of the wave theory of electromagnetic radiation, experiments in which the energy content of the light was found to depend on the color of the light rather than on the intensity of the light. The quantum theory was postulated to explain these observations. This theory says that electromagnetic radiation consists of particles containing discrete quanta of energy and that the energy content of an electromagnetic ﬁeld is proportional to the density of these quanta and to their energy content. The energy content of a single quantum is directly proportional to its frequency as measured according to the wave model, and is given by E = h f, where h is called Planck’s constant, and is equal to 6.6262 × 10−34 J s.

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53

According to quantum theory, high-speed particles have wave properties. The wavelength of a “matter” wave is called the de Broglie wavelength after its discoverer. For a particle of mass m moving at a velocity v, the de Broglie wavelength is λ=

h . mv

These de Broglie waves are the basis for the electron microscope, where the image is formed by matter waves rather than by light waves, as in the optical microscope. Another consequence of the quantum theory is that we cannot determine simultaneously the exact position and the exact energy of a particle. This is due to the fact that the act of measuring either of these two variables disturbs the particle so that the other variable cannot be precisely measured. The product of the uncertainty in the particle’s momentum, p, and in its location, x, is given by Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle as p × x ≥

m

h . 2π

Problems

2.1. Two blocks of mass 0.1 kg and 0.2 kg approach each other on a frictionless surface at velocities of 0.4 and 1 m/s respectively. If the blocks collide and remain together, calculate their joint velocity after the collision. 2.2. A bullet whose mass is 50 g travels at a velocity of 500 m/s. It strikes a rigidly ﬁxed wooden block and penetrates a distance of 20 cm before coming to a stop. (a) What is the deceleration rate of the bullet? (b) What is the deceleration force? (c) What was the initial momentum of the bullet? (d) What was the impulse of the collision? 2.3. Compute the mass of the earth, assuming it to be a sphere of 25,000 miles circumference, if at its surface it attracts a mass of 1 g with a force of 980 dynes. 2.4. An automobile weighing 2000 kg and going at a speed of 60 km/h collides with a truck weighing 5 metric tons that was moving perpendicular to the direction of the automobile at a speed of 4 km/h. If the two vehicles become joined in the collision, what is the magnitude and direction of their velocity relative to the automobile’s original direction? 2.5. A small electrically charged sphere of mass 0.1 g hangs by a thread 100-cm long between two parallel vertical plates spaced 6-cm apart. If 100 V are across the plates and if the charge on the sphere is 10−9 C, what angle does the thread make with the vertical direction? 2.6. A capacitor has a capacitance of 10 μF. How much charge must be removed to cause a decrease of 20 V across the capacitor?

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2.7. A small charged particle whose mass is 0.01 g remains stationary in space when it is placed into an upward directed electric ﬁeld of 10 V/cm. What is the charge on the particle? 2.8. A 1-micron-diameter droplet of oil, whose speciﬁc gravity is 0.9, is introduced into an electric ﬁeld between two large horizontal parallel plates that are 5mm apart, across which there is a potential difference of V volts. If the oil droplet carries a net charge of 100 electrons, how many volts must be applied across the plates if the droplet is to remain suspended in the space between the plates? 2.9. A diode vacuum tube consists of a cathode and an anode spaced 5-mm apart. If 300 V are applied across the plates: (a) What is the velocity of an electron midway between the electrodes and at the instant of striking the plate, if the electrons are emitted from the cathode with zero velocity? (b) If the plate current is 20 mA, what is the average force exerted on the anode? 2.10. Calculate the ratios v/c and m/m 0 for a 1-MeV electron and for a 1-MeV proton. 2.11. Assuming an uncertainty in the momentum of an electron equal to one-half its momentum, calculate the uncertainty in position of a 1-MeV electron. 2.12. If light quanta have mass, they should be attracted by the earth’s gravity. To test this hypothesis, a parallel beam of light is directed horizontally at a receiver 10 miles away. How far would the photons have fallen during their ﬂight to the receiver if indeed they have mass? 2.13. The maximum wavelength of UV light that can produce the photoelectric effect ˚ What will be the kinetic energy of photoelectrons produced in tungsten is 2730 A. ˚ by UV radiation of 1500 A? 2.14. Calculate the uncertainty in position of an electron that was accelerated across a potential difference of 100,000 ± 100 V. 2.15. (a) What voltage is required to accelerate a proton from zero velocity to a velocity ˚ corresponding to a de Broglie wavelength of 0.01 A? (b) What is the kinetic energy of an electron with this wavelength? ˚ (c) What is the energy of an X-ray photon whose wavelength is 0.01 A? 2.16. A current of 25 mA ﬂows through a 25-gauge wire, 0.0179 in. (17.9 mils) in diameter. If there are 5 × 1022 free electrons per cubic centimeter in copper, calculate the average speed with which electrons ﬂow in the wire. 2.17. An electron starts at rest on the negative plate of a parallel plate capacitor and is accelerated by a potential of 1000 volts across a 1-cm gap. (a) With what velocity does the electron strike the positive plate? (b) How long does it take the electron to travel the 1-cm distance? 2.18. A cylindrical capacitor is made of two coaxial conductors—the outer one’s diameter is 20.2 mm and the inner one’s diameter is 0.2 mm. The inner conductor is 1000-V positive with respect to the outer conductor. Repeat parts (a) and (b) of Problem 2.17, and compare the results to those of Problem 2.17.

REVIEW OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

2.19. Two electrons are initially at rest, separated by 0.1 nm. After the electrons are released, they repel each other. What is the kinetic energy of each electron when they are 1.0-nm apart? 2.20. A cyclotron produces a 100-μA beam of 15-MeV deuterons. If the cyclotron were 100% efﬁcient in converting electrical energy into kinetic energy of the deuterons, what is the minimum required power input, (in kilowatts)? 2.21. A 1-μF capacitor is fully charged to 100 V by connecting it across the terminals of a 100-V battery. The charged capacitor is then removed from the battery and connected in parallel to an uncharged 2-μF capacitor as shown below.

±

±

±

±

±

±

±

±

(a) What is the charge on each capacitor after the switch is closed? (b) What is the voltage across the capacitors after the charge is redistributed? 2.22. (a) What voltage must be applied across two electrodes separated by 2-cm high vacuum in order to have an electron starting from rest on the negative electrode strike the positive plate in 10−8 s? (b) With what speed will the electron strike the plate? 2.23. When hydrogen burns, it combines with oxygen according to 2H2 + O2 → 2H2 O. About 2.3 × 105 J of heat energy in the production of 1 mol of water. What is the fractional reduction in the mass of the reactants in this reaction? 2.24. (a) A 1000-MW(e) nuclear power plant operates at a thermal efﬁciency of 33% and at 75% capacity for 1 year. How many kilograms of nuclear fuel are consumed during the year? (b) If a coal-ﬁred plant operates at the same efﬁciency and capacity factor, how many kilograms coal must be burned during the year if the heat content of the coal is 27 MJ/kg (11, 700 Btu/lb)? 2.25. The solar constant is deﬁned as the rate at which solar radiant energy falls on the earth’s atmosphere on a surface normal to the incident radiation. The mean value for the solar constant is 1353 W/m2 , and the mean distance of the earth from the sun is 1.5 × 108 km. (a) At what rate is energy being emitted from the sun? (b) At what rate, in metric tons per second, is the sun’s mass being converted into energy? 2.26. What is the energy of a photon whose momentum is equal to that of a 10-MeV electron?

55

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2.27. What is the wavelength of (a) an electron whose kinetic energy is 1000 eV? (b) a 10−8 -kg oil droplet falling at the rate of 0.01 m/s ? (c) a 1-MeV neutron? 2.28. The speciﬁc heat of water in the English system of units is 1 Btu per pound per degree Fahrenheit; in the cgs system, it is 1 calorie per gram per degree Celsius. (a) Calculate the number of joules per British thermal unit if there are 4.186 J/cal. (b) What is the speciﬁc heat of water, in J/kg · ◦ C ? 2.29. The maximum amplitude of the electric vector in a plane wave in free space is 275 V/m. (a) What is the amplitude of the magnetic ﬁeld vector? (b) What is the rms value of the electric vector? (c) What is the power density, in mW/cm2 in this electromagnetic ﬁeld? 2.30. An electromagnetic wave has a frequency of 2450 MHz and a maximum electric ﬁeld intensity of 100 mV/m. What is the (a) power density in this ﬁeld, mW/cm2 ? (b) maximum magnetic ﬁeld intensity in this wave? 2.31. A radio station transmits at a power of 50,000 W. Assuming the electromagnetic energy to be isotropically radiated (in the case of a real radio transmitter, emission is not isotropic): (a) What is the mean power density (mW/cm2 ), at a distance of 50 km? (b) What is the maximum electric ﬁeld strength at that distance? (c) What is the maximum magnetic ﬁeld strength at that distance? 2.32. The mean value for the solar constant is 1.94 cal/min · cm2 . Calculate the electric and magnetic ﬁeld strengths corresponding to the solar constant. 2.33. How many cubic meters of water must fall over a dam 10-m high in order to generate the electricity needed to keep a 100 W bulb lit for 1 year if the overall efﬁciency of the hydroelectric generating station is 20%? 2.34. (a) Calculate the speed of a 25-MeV proton. (b) What is the percent increase in mass of this proton over its rest mass? 2.35. A neutron passes two points 10.0-m apart in 10 μs. Calculate the neutron’s energy in units of (a) joules, (b) ergs, and (c) electron volts. 2.36. A 10-MeV proton is injected into a 2-T magnetic ﬁeld at an angle of 30◦ to the ﬁeld. Calculate the (a) velocity of the 10-MeV proton and (b) magnitude of the magnetic force acting on the proton.

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57

2.37. (a) Calculate the speed of a (i) 0.5-MeV electron. (ii) 25-MeV electron. (b) How much greater than the rest mass is the mass of each of the energetic electrons?

SUGGESTED READINGS Born, M. Atomic Physics, 8th ed. Hafner, Darien, CT, 1970. Einstein, A. Relativity. Crown Publishers, New York, 1961. Feynman, R. P., Leighton, R. B., and Sands, M. The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1965. Grifﬁths, D. Introduction to Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1998. Halliday, D., Resnick, R., and Walker, J. Fundamentals of Physics, 7th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2004. Hawking, S. A Brief History of Time. Bantam Books, New York, 1998. Heisenberg, W. Philosophic Problems of Nuclear Science. Fawcett Publications, Greenwich, CT, 1966. Hermann, A. The New Physics. Heinz Moos Verlag, Munich, 1979. Holton, G. J. Thematic Origins of Scientiﬁc Thought, Kepler to Einstein. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1973. Isaacson, W. Einstein. Simon and Shuster, New York, 2007. Lapp, R. E., and Andrews, H. L. Nuclear Radiation Physics, 4th ed. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1972. Lindley, D. Uncertainty: Einstein, Heisenberg, Bohr, and the Struggle for the Soul of Science. Doubleday, New York, 2007. Magid, L. M. Electromagnetic Fields, Energy, and Waves. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1972. Peierls, R. E. The Laws of Nature. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1956. Ripley, J. A., Jr. The Elements and Structure of the Physical Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1964. Robinson, A. The Last Man Who Knew Everything: Thomas Young the Anonymous Polymath Who Proved Newton Wrong, Explained How We See, Cured the Sick, and Deciphered the Rosetta Stone, Among Other Feats of Genius. Pi Press, New York, 2006. Rogers, E. M. Physics for the Inquiring Mind. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1960. Serway, R. A., and Jewett, J. W. Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 6th ed., Thomson Brooks Cole, Belmont, CA, 2004. Serway, R. A., Moses, C. J., and Moyer, C. A. Modern Physics, 3rd ed. Brooks Cole, Belmont, CA, 2004. Taylor, B. N. The International System of Units (SI). National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication 330, 1991 edition, U.S. Govt. Printing Ofﬁce, Washington, DC, 1991. Young, H. D, and Freedman, R. A. Sears and Zemansky’s University Physics with Modern Physics, 11th ed. Addison Wesley, Reading, MA, 2003.

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3 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE ATOMIC STRUCTURE Matter, as we ordinarily know it, is electrically neutral. Yet the fact that matter can be easily electriﬁed—by walking with rubber-soled shoes on a carpet, by sliding across a plastic auto seat cover when the atmospheric humidity is low, and by numerous other commonplace means—testiﬁes to the electrical nature of matter. The manner in which the positive and negative electrical charges were held together was a matter of concern to the physicists of the early twentieth century.

Rutherford’s Nuclear Atom The British physicist Rutherford had postulated, in 1911, that the positive charge in an atom was concentrated in a central massive point called the nucleus and that the negative electrons were situated at some remote points, about one angstrom unit distant from the nucleus. In one of the all-time classic experiments of physics, two of Rutherford’s students, Geiger and Marsden, in 1913, tested the validity of this hypothesis by bombarding an extremely thin (6 × 10−5 cm) gold foil with highly energetic, massive, positively charged projectiles called alpha particles. These projectiles, whose kinetic energy was 7.68 MeV, were emitted from the radioactive substance polonium. If Rutherford’s idea had merit, it was expected that most of the alpha particles would pass straight through the thin gold foil. Some of the alpha particles, however, those that would pass by a gold nucleus closely enough to permit a strong interaction between the electric ﬁeld of the alpha particle and the positive point charge in the gold nucleus, would be deﬂected as a result of the repulsive force between the alpha particle and the gold nucleus. An angular scan with an alpha particle detector about the point where the beam of alpha particles traversed the gold foil, as shown in Figure 3-1, permitted Geiger and Marsden to measure the alpha particle intensity at various scattering angles. The experimental results veriﬁed Rutherford’s hypothesis. Although most of the alpha particles passed undeﬂected through the gold foil, a continuous distribution 59

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CHAPTER 3

Figure 3-1. Diagram showing the principle of Rutherford’s experiment with the scattering of alpha particles. The alpha source, its collimator, and the scattering foil are ﬁxed; the alpha-particle detector—consisting of a collimator, a ZnS scintilling crystal, and a microscope— rotates around the point where the alpha beam strikes the scattering foil.

of scattered alpha particles was observed as the alpha-particle detector traversed a scattering angle from 0◦ to 150◦ . Similar results were obtained with other scatterers. The observed angular distributions of the scattered alpha particles agreed with those predicted by Rutherford’s theory, thereby providing experimental evidence for the nuclear atom. Matter was found to consist mainly of open space. A lattice of atoms, consisting of positively charged nuclei about 5 × 10−15 m in diameter and separated by distances of about 10−10 m, was inferred from the scattering data. Detailed analyses of many experimental data later showed the radius of the nucleus to be as follows: r = 1.2 × 10−15 × A1/3 m,

(3.1)

where A is the atomic mass number. The number of unit charges in the nucleus (1 unit charge is 1.6 × 10−19 C) was found to be approximately equal to the atomic number of the atom and to about one-half the atomic weight. Later work in Rutherford’s laboratory by Moseley and by Chadwick in 1920 showed the number of positive charges in the nucleus to be exactly equal to the atomic number. These data implied that the proton, which carries one unit charge, is a fundamental building block of nature. (Based on data from high-energy particle experiments accumulated over a period of several decades, the American physicist Murray Gell-Mann showed that the proton consisted of three basic particles called quarks and was held together by a nuclear force so strong that the quarks cannot be separated. For this discovery, Gell-Mann was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1969. Although the proton [as well as the neutron] is an assembly of three smaller particles, for the purpose of health physics, the proton and neutron are considered to be fundamental particles.) The outer periphery of the atom, at a distance of about 5 × 10−11 m from the nucleus, was thought to be formed by electrons—equal in number to the protons within the nucleus and distributed around the nucleus. However, no satisfactory theory to explain this structure of the atom was postulated by Rutherford. Any acceptable theory must answer two questions: First, how are the electrons held in place outside the nucleus despite the attractive electrostatic forces, and, second, what holds the positive charges in the nucleus together in the face of the repulsive electrostatic forces?

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61

Bohr’s Atomic Model A simple solar system type of model, with the negative electrons revolving about the positively charged nucleus, seemed inviting. According to such a model, the attractive force between the electrons and the nucleus could be balanced by the centrifugal force due to the circular motion of the electrons. Classical electromagnetic theory, however, predicted that such an atom is unstable. The electrons revolving in their orbits undergo continuous radial acceleration. Since classical theory predicts that charged particles radiate electromagnetic energy whenever they experience a change in velocity (either in speed or in direction), it follows that the orbital electrons should eventually spiral into the nucleus as they lose their kinetic energy by radiation. (The radiation produced by the loss of kinetic energy by this mechanism is called bremsstrahlung and is very important in health physics. This point will be taken up in more detail in later chapters.) The objection to the solar system type of atomic model, based on the argument of energy loss due to radial acceleration, was overcome in 1913 by the Danish physicist Niels Bohr simply by denying the validity of classical electromagnetic theory in the case of motion of orbital electrons. Although this was a radical step, it was by no means without precedent. The German physicist Max Planck had already shown that a complete description of blackbody radiation could not be given with classical theory. To do this, he postulated a quantum theory of radiation, in which electromagnetic radiations are assumed to be particles whose energy depends only on the frequency of the radiation. Bohr adopted Planck’s quantum theory and used it to develop an atomic model that was consistent with the known atomic phenomena. The main source of experimental data from which Bohr inferred his model was atomic spectra. Each element, when excited by the addition of energy, radiates only certain colors that are unique to it. (This is the basis of neon signs. Neon, sealed in a glass tube, emits red light as a consequence of electrical excitation of the gas. Mercury vapor is used in the same way to produce blue-gray light.) Because of the discrete nature of these colors, atomic spectra are called “sharp-line” spectra to distinguish them from white light or blackbody radiation, which has a continuous spectrum. Hydrogen, for example, emits electromagnetic radiation of several distinct frequencies when it is excited, as shown in Figure 3-2. Some of these radiations are in the ultraviolet region, some are in the visible light region, and some are in the infrared region. The spectrum of hydrogen consists of several well-deﬁned series of lines whose

Figure 3-2. Hydrogen spectrum.

62

CHAPTER 3

Figure 3-3. Bohr’s model of the hydrogen atom showing the origin of the various series of lines seen in the hydrogen spectrum.

wavelengths were described empirically by physicists of the late nineteenth century by the equation # $ 1 1 1 =R − 2 , λ n21 n2

(3.2)

where R is a constant (named after the Swedish scientist Johannes Rydberg) whose numerical value is 1.097 × 10−2 1/nm, n1 is any whole number equal to or greater than 1, and n2 is a whole number equal to or greater than n1 + 1. The Lyman series, which lies in the ultraviolet region, is the series in which n1 = 1 and n2 = 2, 3, 4, . . . . The longest wavelength in this series, obtained by setting n2 equal to 2 in Eq. (3.2), is 121.5 nm. Succeeding lines, when n2 is 3 and 4, are 102.6 nm and 97.2 nm, respectively. The shortest line, called the series limit, is obtained by solving Eq. (3.2) with n2 equal to inﬁnity; in this case, the wavelength of the most energetic photon is 91.1 nm. Bohr’s atomic model (Fig. 3-3) is based on two fundamental postulates: 1. The orbital electrons can revolve around the nucleus only in certain ﬁxed radii called stationary states. These radii are such that the orbital angular momentum of the revolving electrons must be integral multiples of h/2π, speciﬁcally, mvr =

nh , 2π

(3.3)

where m is the mass of the electron, v is its linear velocity, r is the radius of revolution, h is Planck’s constant, and n is any positive integer.

ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE

63

2. A photon is emitted only when an electron falls from one orbit to another orbit of lower energy. The energy of the photon is equal to the difference between the energy levels of the electrons in the two orbits. h f = E2 − E1 f =

E2 E1 − , h h

(3.4a)

(3.4b)

where f is the frequency of the emitted photon and E 2 and E 1 are the highand low-energy orbits, respectively. When the electron revolves around the nucleus, the electrostatic force of attraction between the electron and the nucleus is balanced by the centrifugal force due to the revolution of the electron: k0

Ze × e mv 2 = , 2 r r

(3.5)

where k 0 is Coulomb’s law constant, 9 × 109 (N · m2 )/C2 , Z is the atomic number of the atom, and e is the electron and proton charge; Ze, therefore, is the charge on the nucleus. Substituting the value for v from Eq. (3.3) into Eq. (3.5) and solving for r , we have r =

n2 h 2 . 4π 2 me 2 Zk0

(3.6)

Equation (3.6) gives the radii of the electronic orbits that will satisfy the condition for the stationary states when whole numbers are substituted for n. The normal condition of the atom, or the ground state, is that state for which n equals 1. When in the ground state, the atom is in its lowest possible energy state and, therefore, in its most stable condition. Transitions from the ground state to higher energy orbits are possible through the absorption of sufﬁcient energy to raise the electron to a larger orbital radius. The energy in any orbit may be calculated by considering the kinetic energy of the electron due to its motion around the nucleus and the potential energy due to its position in the electric ﬁeld of the nucleus. Since the kinetic energy of the electron is equal to 1/2mv2 (the electron does not revolve rapidly enough to consider relativistic effects), then, from Eq. (3.5), we have Ek =

Ze 2 1 2 mv = k0 . 2 2r

(3.7)

The potential energy is, from Eq. (2.32), E p = k0

Ze Ze 2 (−e ) = −k0 . r r

(3.8)

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CHAPTER 3

The total energy is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies: E = Ek + Ep =

k0 Ze 2 k0 Ze 2 k0 Ze 2 − =− . 2r r 2r

(3.9)

The total energy given by Eq. (3.9) is negative simply as a result of the convention discussed in Chapter 2. By deﬁnition, the point of zero potential energy was set at an inﬁnite distance from the nucleus. Since the force between the nucleus and the electron is attractive, it follows that at any point closer than inﬁnity, the potential energy must be less than that at inﬁnity and therefore must have a negative numerical value. The total energy in any permissible orbit is found by substituting the value for the radius, from Eq. (3.6), into Eq. (3.9): E =

1 −2π 2 k 02 m Z 2 e 4 × 2. h2 n

(3.10)

Equation (3.10) may now be substituted into Eq. (3.4b) to get the frequency of the “light” that is radiated from an atom when an electron falls from an excited state into one of lower energy. Letting nf and ni represent respectively the orbit numbers for the lower and higher levels, we have the frequency of the emitted radiation: 2π 2 k 02 m Z 2 e 4 f = h3 Since λ =

#

1 1 − 2 2 nf ni

$ .

(3.11)

c , the reciprocal of the wavelength of this radiation is f

1 2π 2 k 02 m Z 2 e 4 = λ c h3

#

1 1 − 2 2 nf ni

$ .

(3.12)

When numerical values are substituted into the ﬁrst term of Eq. (3.12), the numerical value for Rydberg’s constant is obtained.

Excitation and Ionization The Bohr equation may be used to illustrate the case of hydrogen by substituting Z = 1 into the equations. The radius of the ground state is found to be, from Eq. (3.6), 0.526 × 10−8 cm. The wavelength of the light emitted when the electron falls from the ﬁrst excited state, ni = 2, to the ground state, nf = 1, may be calculated by substituting these values into Eq. (3.2): 1 1 = 1.097 × 10−2 λ nm λ = 121.5 nm.

1 1 − 2 2 1 2

ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE

65

The energy of this photon is E =

hc = λ

6.6 × 10−34 J · s × 3 × 108 m/s = 10.2 eV. J 121.5 × 10−9 m × 1.6 × 10−19 eV

This same amount of energy, 10.2 eV, is necessary to excite hydrogen to the ﬁrst excited state. Precisely this amount of energy, no more and no less, may be used. When a sufﬁcient amount of energy is imparted to raise the electron to an inﬁnitely great orbit, that is, to remove it from the electrical ﬁeld of the nucleus, the atom is said to be ionized and the negative electron together with the remaining positively charged atom are called an ion pair. This process is called ionization. Ionization or excitation may occur when either a photon or a charged particle, such as an electron, a proton, or an alpha particle, collides with an orbital electron and transfers some of its kinetic energy to the orbital electron. Ionization and excitation are of great importance in health physics because this is the avenue through which energy is transferred from radiation to matter. When living matter is irradiated, the primary event in the sequence of events leading to biological damage is either excitation or ionization. The ionization potential of an element is the amount of energy necessary to ionize the least tightly bound electron in an atom of that element. To remove a second electron requires considerably more energy than that needed for removing the ﬁrst electron. For most elements, the ﬁrst ionization potential is on the order of several electron volts. In the case of hydrogen, the ionization potential, I , may be calculated from Eq. (3.11) by setting ni equal to inﬁnity: 1 1 2π 2 m Z 2 e 4 k 02 − I = hf = J 1 ∞ 1.6 × 10−19 × h2 eV 2 4 N · m2 2π 2 × 9.11 × 10−31 kg × 1 × 1.6 × 10−19 C × 9 × 109 C2 = 2 J 1.6 × 10−19 × 6.626 × 10−34 J · s eV = 13.6 eV. A collision in which a rapidly moving particle transfers much more than 13.6 eV to the orbital electron of hydrogen results in the ionization of the hydrogen. The excess energy above 13.6 eV that is transferred in this collision appears as kinetic energy of the electron and of the resulting positive ion, which recoils under the impact of the collision in accordance with the requirements of the conservation of momentum. Such inelastic collisions occur only if the incident particle is sufﬁciently energetic, about 100 eV or greater, to meet this requirement. In those instances where the energy of the particle is insufﬁcient to meet this requirement, an elastic collision with the atom as a whole occurs. Einstein, in 1905, in the ﬁrst of four groundbreaking papers in that year of wonders (annus mirabilis), described the interaction between a quantum of light and a bound electron. When a photon, whose energy is great enough to ionize an atom, collides with a tightly bound orbital electron, the photon disappears and the electron is ejected from the atom with a kinetic energy equal to the difference between the

66

CHAPTER 3

energy of the photon and the ionization potential. This mechanism is called the photoelectric effect and is described by the equation E pe = h f − φ,

(3.13)

where E pe is the kinetic energy of the photoelectron (the ejected electron), hf is the photon energy, and φ is the ionization potential (commonly called the work function). Einstein won the Nobel Prize in 1921 for his work on the theoretical aspects of the photoelectric effect. His other papers in that annus mirabilis included the theory of Brownian motion, special relativity, and the dependence of inertial mass on energy as well as his doctoral dissertation on Avogadro’s number and the size of a molecule.

W

Example 3.1

An ultraviolet photon whose wavelength is 2000 A˚ strikes the outer orbital electron of sodium; the ionization potential of the atom is 5.41 eV. What is the kinetic energy of the photoelectron? Solution The energy of the incident photon is hf J 1.6 × 10−19

J eV

=

hc 1.6 × 10−19 × λ

6.626 × 10−34 J · s × 3 × 108 m/s J 1.6 × 10−19 × 2 × 10−7 m eV = 6.21 eV. =

From Eq. (3.13), the kinetic energy of the photoelectron is found to be E pe = 6.21 − 5.41 = 0.80 eV.

Modiﬁcations of the Bohr Atom The atomic model proposed by Bohr “explains” certain atomic phenomena for hydrogen and for hydrogen-like atoms, such as singly ionized helium (He+ ) and doubly ionized lithium (Li2+ ). Calculation of spectra for other atoms according to the Bohr model is complicated by the screening effect of the other electrons, which effectively reduces the electrical ﬁeld of the nucleus, and by electrical interactions among the electrons. The simple Bohr theory described above is inadequate even for the hydrogen atom. Examination of the spectral lines of hydrogen with spectroscopes of high resolving power shows the lines to have a ﬁne structure. The spectral lines

ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE

67

are in reality each made of several lines that are very close together. This observation implies the existence of sublevels of energy within the principal energy levels and that these sublevels are very close together. They can be explained by assuming the orbits to be elliptical instead of circular, with the nucleus at one of the foci, and also assuming that ellipses of different eccentricities have slightly different energy levels. For any given principal energy level, the major axes of these ellipses are the same; eccentricity varies only by changes in the length of the minor axes. The eccentricity of these ellipses is restricted by quantum conditions. The angular momentum of an electron revolving in an elliptical orbit is an integral multiple of h/2π, as in the case of the circular Bohr orbit. However, the numerical value for this multiple is not the same as that for the circular orbit. In the case of the circular orbit, this multiple, or quantum number, is called the principal quantum number and is given the symbol n. For the elliptical orbit, the multiple is called the azimuthal quantum number, usually symbolized by the letter l, and may be any integral number between 0 and n – 1 inclusive. Elliptical orbits alone were insufﬁcient to account for observed spectral lines because the lines observed with the high-resolution spectroscope were found to exhibit a hyperﬁne structure of two lines when viewed with a very high resolution spectrometer. To explain the hyperﬁne structure, it postulated that each orbital electron spins about its own axis in the same manner as the earth spins about its axis as it revolves around the sun. The angular momentum due to this spin also is quantized and can only have a value equal to one-half a unit of angular momentum. It is symbolized by the letter s : 1 s =± 2

h 2π

.

(3.14)

The orbital electron can spin in only one of two directions with respect to the direction of its revolution about the nucleus—either in the same direction or in the opposite direction. This accounts for the plus and minus signs in Eq. (3.14). Since momentum is a vector quantity, the total angular momentum of the electron is therefore equal to the vector sum of the orbital and spin angular momenta. The magnetic properties of the atom must be considered before the description of the atom is complete. An electron revolving in its orbit around the nucleus may be considered a current ﬂowing through a closed loop. According to electromagnetic theory, this current ﬂow generates a magnetic ﬁeld. The revolving electron thus may be considered to be a tiny bar magnet. A bar magnet has a magnetic moment given by the product of the pole strength and the distance between the poles. If such a magnet were aligned in a magnetic ﬁeld, a certain amount of work, depending on the strength of the ﬁeld, would have to be done in order to rotate the magnet. Magnetic moments therefore are described by joules per tesla in SI units or by ergs per gauss in cgs units. Moments have direction as well as magnitude and therefore are vector quantities. The spinning of the electron results in an additional magnetic moment, which may be either positive or negative, depending on the direction of spin relative to the direction of the orbital motion. The total magnetic moment is therefore equal to the vector sum of the orbital and spin magnetic moments. If the atoms of any substance are placed in a strong magnetic ﬁeld, the orbital electrons, because of their magnetic

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CHAPTER 3

moments, will orient themselves in deﬁnite directions relative to the applied magnetic ﬁeld. These directions are such that the component of the vector representing the orbital angular momentum l, which is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld, must have an integral value of angular momentum. This integral number, m, is called the magnetic quantum number; it can have numerical values ranging from l, l − 1, l − 2, . . . , 0 . . . , −(l − 2), −(l − l), −l. The interaction of the magnetic properties of the orbital electrons and an applied magnetic ﬁeld is the basis for the analytical technique called electron spin resonance. To describe an atom completely, it is necessary to specify four quantum numbers, which have the values given below, for each of the orbital electrons: SYMBOL n l m s

NAME Principal quantum number Azimuthal quantum number Magnetic quantum number Spin quantum number

VALUE 1,2, . . . 0 to n − 1 − l to 0 to + l − 12 , + 12

By using Bohr’s atomic model and assigning all possible numerical values to these four quantum numbers according to certain rules, it is possible to construct the periodic table of the elements.

Periodic Table of the Elements The periodic table of the elements may be constructed with Bohr’s atomic model by applying the Pauli exclusion principle. This principle states that no two electrons in any atom may have the same set of four quantum numbers. Hydrogen, the ﬁrst element, has a nuclear charge of +1 and therefore has only one electron. Since the principal quantum number of this electron must be 1, l and m must be 0 and the spin quantum number s may be either plus or minus 1/2. If now we go to the second element, helium, we must have two orbital electrons since helium has a nuclear charge of +2. The ﬁrst electron in the helium atom may have the same set of quantum numbers as the electron in the hydrogen atom. The second electron, however, must differ. This difference can be only in the spin since we may have two different spins for the set of quantum numbers n = 1, l = 0, and m = 0. This second electron exhausts all the possibilities for n = 1. If now a third electron is added when we go to atomic number 3, lithium, it must have the principal quantum number 2. In this principal energy level, the orbit may be either circular or elliptical, that is, the azimuthal quantum number l may be either 0 or 1. In the case of l = 0, the magnetic quantum number m can only be equal to 0; when l = 1, m may be either −1, 0, or +1. Each of these quantum states may contain two electrons, one with spin +1/2 and the other with spin −1/2. Eight different electrons, each with its own unique set of quantum numbers, are therefore possible in the second principal energy level. These eight different possibilities are utilized by the elements Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, and Ne (atomic numbers 3–10 inclusive). The additional electron for sodium (atomic number 11) must have the principal quantum number n = 3. By assigning all the possible combinations of the four quantum numbers to the electrons in the third principal energy level, it is found that 18 electrons are possible. These

ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE

69

energy levels are not ﬁlled successively, as were those in the K and L shells. (The principal quantum levels corresponding to n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 are called the K , L, M, N, O , P , and Q shells, respectively.) No outermost electron shell contains more than eight electrons. After the M shell contains eight electrons, as in the case of argon, the next element in the periodic table, potassium (atomic number 20), starts another principal energy level with one electron in the N shell. Subsequent elements then may add electrons either in the M or in the N shells, until the M shell contains its full complement of 18 electrons. No electrons appear in the O shell until the N shell has eight electrons. The maximum number of electrons that may exist in any principal energy level is given by the product 2n2 , where n is the principal quantum number. Thus, the O shell may have a maximum of 2 × 52 = 50 electrons. The fact that no outermost electron shell contains more than eight electrons is responsible for the periodicity of the chemical properties of many elements and is the physical basis for the periodic table. Since chemical reactions involve the outer electrons, it is not surprising that atoms with similar outer electronic structures should have similar chemical properties. For example, Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs behave chemically in a similar manner because each of these elements has only one electron in its outermost orbit. The gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn are chemically inert because their outermost electron shells are ﬁlled. Therefore, these elements do not undergo chemical reactions. The elements are thought to have the electronic conﬁgurations given in Table 3-1. Examination of Table 3-1 reveals certain interesting points. The ﬁrst 20 elements successively add electrons to their outermost shells. The next 8 elements, Sc to Ni, have four shells but add successive electrons to the third shell until it is ﬁlled with the maximum number of 18. These elements are called transition elements. The same thing happens with elements 39–46 inclusive. Electrons are added to the fourth shell until they number 18, then the ﬁfth shell increases until it contains 8 electrons. In element number 55, Cs, the sixth principal electron orbit, the P shell, starts to ﬁll. Instead of continuing, however, the N level starts to ﬁll. Beginning with Ce, and continuing through Lu, electrons are successively added to the fourth electron shell while the two outermost shells remain about the same. This group of elements is usually called the rare earths and sometimes the lanthanides because these elements begin immediately after La. The rare earth elements differ from the transition elements in the depth of the electronic orbit that is ﬁlling. While the transition elements ﬁll the second outer orbit, the rare earths ﬁll the third electron shell, which is deeper in the atom. Since, in the case of the rare earths, the two outermost electron shells are alike, it is extremely difﬁcult to separate them by chemical means. They are of importance to the health physicist because they include a great number of the ﬁssion products. The concern of the health physicist with the rare earths is aggravated by the fact that the analytical chemistry of the rare earths is very difﬁcult and also by the relative dearth of knowledge regarding their metabolic pathways and toxicological properties. Despite their name, the rare earths are not rare; they are found to be widely distributed in nature, albeit in small concentrations. Another group of rare earths is found in the elements starting with Th and continuing to where the O shell ﬁlls while the P and Q shells remain about the same. These rare earths are usually called the actinide elements. They are of importance to the health physicist because they are all naturally radioactive and include the fuel used in nuclear reactors.

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TABLE 3-1. Electronic Structure of the Elements K L M N O P Q ATOMIC SHELL SHELL SHELL SHELL SHELL SHELL SHELL PERIOD SYMBOL ELEMENT NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

H He

Hydrogen Helium

1 2

1 2

2

Li Be B C N O F

Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine

3 4 5 6 7 8 9

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

3

Ne Na Mg AI Si P S Cl

Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br

Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

8 8 8 9 10 11 13 13 14 15 16 18 18 18 18 18 18 18

1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te

Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium

36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18

8 8 8 9 10 12 13 14 15 16 18 18 18 18 18 18 18

4

5

1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

(continued )

71

ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE

TABLE 3-1. Electronic Structure of the Elements (Continued )

PERIOD SYMBOL ELEMENT 6

7

K L M N O P Q ATOMIC SHELL SHELL SHELL SHELL SHELL SHELL SHELL NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

I Xe Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At

Iodine Xenon Cesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine

53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18

18 18 18 18 18 19 20 22 23 24 25 25 26 28 29 30 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32

7 8 8 8 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 18 18 18 18 18 18

1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Rn Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf

Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium

86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18

32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32

18 18 18 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 25 27 28 29 30 31 32 32 32

8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 10

1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

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Characteristic X-rays There are certain virtues of the solar system type of atomic model, in which electrons rotate about the nucleus in certain radii corresponding to unique energy levels. Virtues of the model include the simple explanations that it allows for transfer of energy to matter by excitation and ionization, for the photoelectric effect, and for the origin of certain X-rays called characteristic X-rays. It was pointed out that optical and ultraviolet spectra of elements are due to excitation of outer electrons to levels up to several electron volts and that spectral lines represent energy differences between excited states. As more and more electron shells are added, the energy differences between the principal levels increase greatly. In elements with high atomic numbers, these energy levels reach tens of thousands of electron volts. In the case of Pb, for example, the energy difference between the K and L shells is 72,000 eV. If this K electron is struck by a photon whose energy exceeds 87.95 keV (the binding energy of the K electron) the electron is ejected from the atom and leaves an empty slot in the K shell, as shown schematically in Figure 3-4. Instantaneously, one of the outer electrons falls down into the vacant slot left by the photoelectron. When this happens, a photon is emitted whose energy is equal to the difference between the initial and ﬁnal energy levels, in accordance with Eq. (3.4a). For the Pb atom, when an electron falls from the L to the K levels, the emitted photon has a quantum energy of 72,000 eV. A photon of such high energy is an X-ray. When produced in this manner, the photon is called a characteristic X-ray because the energy differences between electron orbits are unique for the different atoms and the X-rays representing these differences are “characteristic” of the elements in which they originate. This process is repeated until all the inner electron orbits are reﬁlled. It is possible, of course, that the ﬁrst transition is from the M level or even from the outermost electronic orbit. The most likely origin of the ﬁrst electronic transition, however, is the L shell. When this happens, the resulting X-ray is called a K α photon; if an electron falls from the M level to the K level, we have a K β photon. When the vacancy in the L orbit is ﬁlled by an electron that falls from the M level, we have an L α X-ray; if the L vacancy is ﬁlled by an electron originally in the N level, then an Lβ X-ray results, and so on. These characteristic X-rays are sometimes called ﬂuorescent radiation since they are emitted when matter is irradiated with X-rays. Characteristic radiation is useful as a tool to the analytical chemist for identifying unknown elements. Characteristic radiation is of importance to the health physicist who must consider the ﬂuorescent

Figure 3-4. Schematic representation of the origin of characteristic X-rays.

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73

radiation that may be produced in radiation absorbers and in certain other cases where inner electrons are ejected from high-atomic-numbered elements. A characteristic X-ray photon may interact with another electron in the atom where the characteristic photon originated and eject that electron. This second ejected electron is called an Auger (pronounced ozhay) electron. The Auger electron can come from the same orbit as the original photoelectron or it may come from an outer orbit. The kinetic energy of an Auger electron (E kA ) is given by E kA = φi − 2φo ,

(3.15)

where φi = binding energy of the inner orbit and φo = binding energy of the outer orbit.

The Wave Mechanics Atomic Model The atomic model described above is sufﬁciently useful to explain most phenomena encountered in health physics. For the study of atomic physics, however, a more abstract concept of the atom was proposed by the Austrian physicist Schr¨odinger (for which he and the British physicist Dirac shared the Nobel Prize in 1933). Instead of working with particulate electrons as Bohr had done, he treated them as de Broglie waves and developed the branch of physics known as “wave mechanics.” Starting with the de Broglie equation for the associated electron wave, Schr¨odinger derived a general differential equation that must be satisﬁed by an electron within an atom. The present-day atomic theory consists of solutions of this equation subject to certain conditions. A number of different solutions, corresponding to different energy levels, are possible. However, whereas Bohr pictured an atom with electrons at precisely determined distances from the nucleus, the Schr¨odinger wave equation gives the probability of ﬁnding an electron at any given distance from the nucleus. The two atomic pictures coincide to the extent that the most probable radius for the hydrogen electron is exactly the same as the ﬁrst Bohr radius. Similarly, the second Bohr radius corresponds to the most probable distance from the nucleus of the electron in the ﬁrst excited state. Furthermore, the four quantum numbers arbitrarily introduced into the Bohr atom fall naturally out of the solutions of the Schr¨odinger wave equation. Although the wave model has replaced the Bohr system of atomic mechanics for highly theoretical considerations, the older atomic model is still considered a very useful tool in helping to interpret atomic phenomena.

THE NUCLEUS The Neutron and Nuclear Force It has already been pointed out that the positive charges in the atomic nucleus are due to protons and that hydrogen is the simplest nucleus—it consists of only a single proton. If succeeding nuclei merely were multiples of the proton, then the mass numbers of the nuclei, if a mass number of 1 is assigned to the proton, should be equal to the atomic numbers of the nuclei. This was not found to be the case. Except

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for hydrogen, the nuclear mass numbers were found to be about twice as great as the corresponding atomic numbers and became relatively greater as the atomic numbers increased. Furthermore, it was necessary to account for the stability of the nucleus in the face of the repulsive coulombic forces among the nuclear protons. Example 2.4 shows that the gravitational force of attraction is insufﬁcient to overcome the repulsive electrical forces. Both these problems were solved by the discovery, in 1932, by the British physicist Chadwick, of what was thought to be the third basic building block in nature—the neutron. (Chadwick won the Nobel Prize in 1935 for this discovery.) This particle, whose mass is about the same as that of a proton, 1.67474 × 10−27 kg, is electrically neutral. Its presence in the nucleus accounts for the difference between the atomic number and the atomic mass number; it also supplies the cohesive force that holds the nucleus together. This force is called the nuclear force. It is thought to act over an extremely short range—about 2 × 10−15 to 3 × 10−15 m. By analogy to the ordinary case of charged particles, it may be assumed that the neutron and the proton carry certain nuclear charges and that force ﬁelds due to these nuclear charges are established around the nucleons (particles within the nucleus). Nuclear forces are all attractive and the interaction between the nuclear force ﬁelds supplies the cohesive forces that overcome the repulsive electrical forces. However, since the range of the nuclear force is much shorter than the range of the electrical force, neutrons can interact only with those nucleons to which they are immediately adjacent, whereas protons interact with each other even though they are remotely located within the nucleus. For this reason, the number of neutrons must increase more rapidly than the number of protons.

Quarks Recent studies in particle physics have shown that protons and neutrons are not the elementary particles that they had been thought to be. They consist of assemblies of three particles, called quarks, which are now believed to be elementary particles. Quarks are charged particles and carry charges of either ±2/3 or ±1/3 of the charge on a proton. Those that have ±2/3 of the protonic charge are called up quarks, and those that carry ±1/3 of the protonic charge are called down quarks. A proton consists of two positive up quarks and one negative down quark, which results in a single positive charge. A neutron is made of one positive up quark and two negative down quarks, which results in a net charge of zero. The quarks within a particle are held together by an extremely strong force called the strong force; it is also known as the color force (the area of study of the color force is called quantum chromodynamics).This force is so strong that it is not possible at this time to separate a proton or a neutron into its component quarks. In experimental attempts to do this, it was found that the enormous amount of energy needed to separate a proton or a neutron into their component quarks is converted into heavy particles. The mass of these heavy particles accords with Einstein’s mass–energy equivalence rather than being expended in separating the quarks.

Isotopes It has been found that for any particular element the number of neutrons within the nucleus is not constant. Oxygen, for example, consists of three nuclear

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75

species: one whose nucleus has 8 neutrons, one of 9 neutrons, and one of 10 neutrons. In each of these three cases, of course, the nucleus contains 8 protons. The atomic mass numbers of these three species are 16, 17, and 18, respectively. These three nuclear species of the same element are called isotopes of oxygen. Isotopes of an element are atoms that contain the same number of positive nuclear charges and have the same extranuclear electronic structure but differ in the number of neutrons. Most elements contain several isotopes. The atomic weight of an element is the weighted average of the weights of the different isotopes of which the element is composed. Isotopes cannot be distinguished chemically since they have the same electronic structure and therefore undergo the same chemical reactions. An isotope is identiﬁed by writing the chemical symbol with a subscript to the left giving the atomic number and a superscript giving the atomic mass number or the total number of nucleons. Thus, the three isotopes of oxygen may be written as 168 O, 178 O, and 188 O. Since the atomic number is synonymous with the chemical symbol, the subscript is usually omitted and the isotope is written as 16 O. It should be pointed out that not all isotopes are equally abundant. In the case of oxygen, 99.759% of the naturally occurring atoms are 16 O, whereas 17 O and 18 O include 0.037% and 0.204%, respectively. In other elements, the distribution of isotopes may be quite different. Chlorine, for example, consists of two naturally occurring isotopes, 35 Cl and 37 Cl, whose respective abundances are 75.77% and 24.23%. Sodium and gold consist of only one naturally occurring isotope, 23 Na and 197 Au, respectively.

The Atomic Mass Unit The terms weight and mass are frequently used interchangeably. Weight is the force with which a mass is attracted by gravity. A mass of 1 g weighs 1 g at the earth’s surface. One gram of force is equal to 980 dynes. Similarly, a mass of 1 kg weighs 1 kg, and a force of 1 kg is equal to 98 N. Atomic masses may be given either in grams or in relative numbers called atomic mass units. Since one mole of any substance contains 6.02 × 1023 molecules (Avogadro’s number) and the weight in grams of one mole is equal numerically to its molecular weight, the weight of a single atom can easily be computed. In the case of 12 C, which is a monoatomic molecule, for example, 1 mol weighs 12.0000 g. One atom, therefore, weighs 12.0000 g/mol = 1.9927 × 10−23 g. 6.02 × 1023 atoms/mol Since the mass of 1 mol of 12 C was found to be a whole number, carbon was chosen as the reference standard for the system of relative weights known as atomic weights. (Actually, the atomic weight of an element is the weighted average of all the isotopic weights. The physical scale is based only on the weight of 12 C.) Since 12 C was assigned an atomic weight of 12.0000, one atomic mass unit, amu (also called a dalton, symbolized by D), is 1 amu =

1.9927 × 10−23 g = 1.6605 × 10−24 g. 12

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On this basis, the weight of a neutron m n is 1.008665 amu, that of a proton m p is 1.007276 amu, and the weight of an electron is 0.000548 amu. The energy equivalent of one atomic mass unit is (note that the speed of light is rounded in this example) E (1 amu) =

=

mc 2 J 1.6 × 10−13

J MeV

kg m 2 × 3 × 108 amu s J 1.6 × 10−13 MeV

1 amu × 1.6605 × 10−27

= 931 MeV.

Binding Energy At this point, it is interesting to compare the sum of the weights of the constituent parts of an isotope W with the measured isotopic weight M. For the case of 17 O, whose atomic mass is 16.999131 amu, we have W = (Z)m H + (A − Z)m n ,

(3.16)

where Z is the atomic number and A is the atomic mass number, which is equal to the number of nucleons within the nucleus, m H is the mass of a hydrogen atom, and m n is the mass of a neutron. W = 8(1.00728) + (17 − 8)(1.00867) = 17.1363 amu. The weight of the sum of the parts is seen to be much greater than the actual weight of the entire atom. This is true not only for 17 O but for all nuclei. The difference between the atomic weight and the sum of the weights of the parts is called the mass defect and is deﬁned by δ as follows: δ = W − M.

(3.17)

The mass defect represents the mass equivalent of the work that must be done in order to separate the nucleus into its individual component nucleons and is therefore called the binding energy. In energy units, the binding energy, BE, is E B = (W − M) amu × 931

MeV . amu

(3.18)

The binding energy is a measure of the cohesiveness of a nucleus. Since the total binding energy of a nucleus depends on the number of nucleons within the nucleus, a more useful measure of the cohesiveness is the average binding energy per nucleon, E b , as given below: Eb =

931 (W − M) MeV/nucleon, A

(3.19)

ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE

77

where A, the atomic mass number, represents the number of nucleons within the nucleus. For the case of 17 O, the binding energy is 131.7 MeV and the average binding energy per nucleon is 7.75 MeV. The binding energy per nucleon is very low for the low-atomic-numbered elements but rises rapidly to a very broad peak at binding energies in excess of 8 MeV/nucleon and then decreases very slowly until a value of 7.58 MeV/nucleon is reached for 238 U. Figure 3-5, in which the binding energy per nucleon is plotted against the number of nucleons in the various isotopes, shows that, with very few exceptions, there is a systematic variation of binding energy per nucleon with the number of nucleons within the nucleus. The most notable departures from the smooth curve are the nuclides 4 He, 12 C, and 16 O. Each of these nuclides lies above the curve, indicating that they are very strongly bound. The 12 C and 16 O isotopes, as well as 20 Ne, which has more binding energy per nucleon than either of the nuclides that ﬂank it, may be thought of as containing three, four, and ﬁve subunits of 4 He, respectively. The exceptional binding energies in these nuclei, together with the fact that 4 He nuclei, as alpha particles, are emitted in certain modes of radioactive transformation, suggest that nucleons tend to form stable subgroups of two protons and two neutrons within the nucleus. The fact that the binding energy curve (Fig. 3-5) has the shape that it does explains why it is possible to release energy by splitting the very heavy elements and by fusing two very light elements. Since the binding energy per nucleon is greater for nuclei in the center of the curve than for nuclei at both extremes, any change in nuclear

Figure 3-5. Variation of binding energy per nucleon with atomic mass number.

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structure that drives the nucleons toward the center of the curve must release the energy difference between the ﬁnal and the initial states.

Nuclear Models (a) Liquid drop model Two different nuclear models have been postulated. According to one of these, the nucleus is considered to be a hom*ogenous mixture of nucleons in which all the nucleons interact strongly with each other. As a result, the internal energy of the nucleus is about equally distributed among the constituent nucleons, while surface tension forces tend to keep the nucleus spherical. This is analogous to a drop of liquid and hence is called the liquid drop model of the nucleus. This model, which was proposed by Bohr and Wheeler, is particularly successful in explaining nuclear ﬁssion and in permitting the calculation of the atomic masses of various nuclides whose atomic masses are very difﬁcult to measure. From the preceding discussion, we see that the mass of a nucleus of atomic number Z and atomic mass number A is M = (A − Z)m n + Zm H − δ.

(3.20)

Furthermore, the average binding energy per nucleon, and hence the total binding energy, is seen from Figure 3-5 to be a function of Z and A. The liquid drop model permits a semiempirical equation to be formulated that relates the nuclear mass and binding energy to A and Z . According to the liquid drop model, the intranuclear forces and the potential energy resulting from these forces are due to the short-range attractive forces between adjacent nucleons, the long-range repulsive coulomb forces among the protons, and the surface tension effect, in which nucleons on the surface of the nucleus are less tightly bound than those in the nuclear interior. The binding energy due to these forces is modiﬁed according to whether the numbers of neutrons and protons are even or odd. On the basis of this reasoning, the following equation was ﬁtted to the experimental data relating nuclear mass, in atomic mass units, with A and Z: M = 0.99389 A − 0.00081 Z + 0.014 A2/3 + 0.083

(A/2 − Z)2 Z2 + 0.000627 1/3 + , A A

(3.21)

where =0 = −0.036/A3/4 = +0.036/A3/4

for odd A, for even A, even Z , and for even A, odd Z .

(b) Shell model The alternate nuclear model is called the shell model. According to this model of the nucleus, the various nucleons exist in certain energy levels within the nucleus and interact weakly among themselves. Many observations and experimental data lend support to such a nuclear structure. Among the stable nuclides, the “even–even” nuclei—nuclei with even numbers of protons and

ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE

79

neutrons—are most numerous, with a total of 162 isotopes. Even–odd nuclei, in which one type of the nucleons—either the protons or the neutrons—is even in number and the other type is odd, are second in abundance with a total of 108 nuclides. Odd–odd nuclei are the fewest in number; only four such stable nuclides are found in nature. Furthermore, “magic numbers” have been found to recur among the stable isotopes. These magic numbers include 2, 8, 20, 50, 82, and 126. Atoms containing these numbers of protons or neutrons or both are most abundant in nature, suggesting unusual stability in their structures. Nuclei containing these magic numbers are relatively inert in a nuclear sense, that is, they do not react easily when bombarded with neutrons. This is analogous to the case of chemically inert elements that have ﬁlled electron energy levels. Nucleons interact with magnetic ﬁelds in a manner similar to the orbiting electrons. Protons spin in either one of the two directions, as do the orbiting electrons, and hence behave as tiny magnets and are associated with magnetic moments. The charge on a proton is due to the fact that the proton is an assembly of three electrically charged quarks, two “up” quarks each containing a +2/3 charge and one “down” quark whose charge is −1/3, resulting in the proton’s +1 charge. The magnetic moment of a proton is very much smaller than that of an extranuclear electron. In both instances, however, pairs of particles of opposite spin cancel each other’s magnetic moments, leaving a net magnetic moment due to an unpaired particle. Neutrons too spin in either one of the two directions. Despite the fact that they are electrically neutral, spinning neutrons nevertheless have a magnetic moment as the neutron consists of three quarks, one positive up quark that contains a +2/3 charge and two negative down quarks, each one containing a −1/3 charge. Although the net charge is zero, the distribution of charges in the neutron leads to electrical polarization, and hence the ability to generate a magnetic ﬁeld. The magnetic moment of protons, especially in hydrogen, is the basis for analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance and for magnetic resonance imaging in the practice of medicine. All these observed facts are compatible with an energy level model of the nucleus similar to the electronic energy level model of the atom. Each nucleon in a nucleus is identiﬁed by its own set of four quantum numbers, as in the case of the extranuclear electrons. By application of the Pauli exclusion principle to nucleons, it is possible to construct energy levels that contain successively 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, and 126 nucleons. As in the case of the extranuclear electrons, nucleons too may be excited by raising them to higher energy levels. When this occurs, the nucleon falls back into its ground state and emits a photon whose energy is equal to the energy difference between the excited and ground states. This is the same type of phenomenon as seen in the case of optical and characteristic X-ray spectra. The photon in this case is called a gamma ray. Because nuclear energy levels are usually much further apart than electronic energy levels, gamma rays are usually (though not necessarily) more energetic than X-ray photons. It should be emphasized that from the practical viewpoint of health physics, X-rays and gamma rays are identical. They differ only in their place of origin—X-rays in the extranuclear structure and gamma rays within the nucleus. Once they are produced, it is impossible to distinguish between X-rays and gamma rays.

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Nuclear Stability If a plot is made of the number of protons versus the number of neutrons for the stable isotopes, the curve shown in Figure 3-6 is obtained. The stable isotopes lie within a relatively narrow range, indicating that the neutron-to-proton ratio must lie within certain limits if a nucleus is to be stable. Most radioactive nuclei lie outside this range of stability. The plot also shows that the slope of the curve, which initially has a value of unity, gradually increases as the atomic number increases, thereby showing the continuously increasing ratio of neutrons to protons. Since all nuclear forces are attractive, it may appear surprising to ﬁnd unstable nuclei with an excessive number of neutrons. This apparent anomaly may be explained simply in terms of the shell model of the nucleus. According to the Pauli exclusion principle, like nucleons may be grouped in pairs with each pair having all quantum numbers the same except the spin quantum number. Since nuclei with completely ﬁlled energy levels are more stable than those with unﬁlled inner levels, additional neutrons, in the case of nuclei with unﬁlled proton levels but ﬁlled neutron levels, result in unstable nuclei. To achieve stability, the nucleus may undergo an internal rearrangement in which the additional neutron transforms itself into a proton by emitting an electron. The new proton then pairs off with a proton in one

Figure 3-6. Nuclear stability curve. The line represents the best ﬁt to the neutron–proton coordinates of stable isotopes.

ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE

81

of the unﬁlled proton levels. As an example of this possible mechanism, consider the consequences of the addition of a neutron to 31 15 P. This is the stable isotope of phosphorus that occurs naturally. According to the shell model, the 15 protons inside the nucleus may be distributed among seven pairs with one proton remaining unpaired, while the neutrons may be paired off into eight groups. If now an additional neutron is added to the nucleus to make 32 15 P, the additional neutron may go into another energy level. This condition, however, is unstable. The additional neutron may therefore become a proton and an electron—with the electron being ejected from the nucleus and the proton pairing off with the single proton, thereby forming stable 32 16 S. This internal nuclear transformation is called a radioactive transformation or a radioactive decay.

SUMMARY Although the word atom is derived from the Greek word atomos, which means “indivisible,” modern science has found the atom to be a complex structure consisting of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons. The nucleus in turn is composed of two different particles—positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons. The protons and neutrons consist of an assembly of three smaller particles called quarks. Quarks are considered to be one of the fundamental building blocks in nature. Strong, attractive, short-ranged, nuclear forces act between the nucleons (particles within the nucleus) to overcome the repulsive electric forces that act between the protons. In a neutral atom, the number of extranuclear electrons is equal to the number of intranuclear protons. The overall diameter of the atom is on the order of 10−8 cm while the diameter of the nucleus measures about 10−13 cm. The Bohr atomic model resembles a miniature solar system, with the electrons revolving around the nucleus in only certain allowable radii that are described by a set of four quantum numbers. The wave mechanics atomic model pictures the atom as a central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons. The distances of these electrons from the nuclei are not precisely deﬁned, as in the Bohr model, but rather are described by a wavelike probability function. These two atomic models coincide to the extent that the most probable radii of the wave mechanical model correspond to the precisely quantized radii of the Bohr model. Although the wave mechanical model has replaced the Bohr model for highly theoretical considerations, the Bohr model is adequate to explain the phenomena that underlie most health physics measurements and applications. The atomic number and hence the chemical properties of an element are determined by the number of protons within the nucleus. Different atoms of the same element, however, may have different numbers of neutrons within their nuclei. These different forms of the same element are called isotopes. The total number of nucleons within a nucleus is called its atomic mass number. An isotope usually is speciﬁed by the name of the element and its atomic mass number. In written form, we frequently describe an isotope by its atomic number as a subscript to the left of its chemical symbol and its atomic mass number as a superscript to the left of its symbol. Thus, for uranium 238, whose atomic number is 92, we have 238 92 U. The mass of a

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nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of its constituent parts. This mass difference represents the mass equivalent of the energy that was expended in assembling the nucleus (the binding energy). When a particle is ejected from the nucleus or when an atom undergoes nuclear ﬁssion, this potential energy reappears as the kinetic energy of the ejected particle or of the ﬁssion fragments and the energy of accompanying radiation. A stable atom requires that the ratio of neutrons to protons within the nucleus be within certain limits. If this ratio is too great or too small then the nucleus is unstable and it spontaneously attempts to become stable by a radioactive transformation.

m

Problems

3.1. What is the closest approach that a 5.3-MeV alpha particle can make to a gold nucleus? 3.2. Calculate the number of atoms per cubic centimeter of lead given that the density of lead is 11.3 g/cm3 and its atomic weight is 207.21. 3.3. A μ− meson has a charge of −4.8 × 10−10 sC and a mass 207 times that of a resting electron. If a proton should capture a μ− to form a “mesic” atom, calculate (a) the radius of the ﬁrst Bohr orbit and (b) the ionization potential. 3.4. Calculate the ionization potential of a singly ionized 4 He atom.

3.5. Calculate the current due to the hydrogen electron in the ground state of hydrogen. 3.6. Calculate the ratio of the velocity of a hydrogen electron in the ground state to the velocity of light. 3.7. Calculate the Rydberg constant for deuterium. 3.8. What is the uncertainty in the momentum of a proton inside a nucleus of 27 Al? What is the kinetic energy of this proton? 3.9. A sodium ion is neutralized by capturing a 1-eV electron. What is the wavelength of the emitted radiation if the ionization potential of Na is 5.41 V? 3.10. (a) How much energy would be released if 1 g of deuterium were fused to form helium according to the equation 2 H + 2 H →4 He + Q? (b) How much energy is necessary to drive the two deuterium nuclei together? 3.11. The density of beryllium (atomic number 4) is 1.84 g/cm3 , and the density of lead (atomic number 82) is 11.3 g/cm3 . Calculate the density of a 9 Be and a 208 Pb nucleus. 3.12. Determine the electronic shell conﬁguration for aluminum (atomic number 13). 3.13. What is the difference in mass between the hydrogen atom and the sum of the masses of a proton and an electron? Express the answer in energy equivalent (eV) of the mass difference.

ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE

3.14. If the heat of vaporization of water is 540 cal/g at atmospheric pressure, what is the binding energy of a water molecule? 3.15. The ionization potential of He is 24.5 eV. What is the (a) minimum velocity with which an electron is moving before it can ionize an unexcited He atom? (b) maximum wavelength of a photon in order that it ionizes the He atom? 3.16. In a certain 25-W mercury-vapor ultraviolet lamp, 0.1% of the electric energy input ˚ What is the UV photon emission appears as UV radiation of wavelength 2537 A. rate per second from this lamp? 3.17. The atomic mass of tritium is 3.017005 amu. How much energy in million electron volts is required to dissociate the tritium into its component parts? 3.18. Compute the frequency, wavelength, and energy (in electron volts) for the second and third lines in the Lyman series. 3.19. Using the Bohr atomic model, calculate the velocity of the ground-state electrons in hydrogen and in helium. 3.20. The heat of combustion when H2 combines with O2 to form water is 60 kcal/mol water. How much energy (in electron volts) is liberated per molecule of water produced? 3.21. The atomic weights of 16 O, 17 O, and 18 O are 15.994915, 16.999131, and 17.999160 amu, respectively. Calculate the atomic weight of oxygen. 3.22. Calculate the molecular weight of chlorine, Cl2 , using the exact atomic weights of the chlorine isotopes given in appropriate reference sources. 3.23. If 9 g of NaCl were dissolved in 1 L of water, what would be concentration, in atoms per milliliter, of each of the constituent elements in the solution? 3.24. The visual threshold of the normal human eye is about 7.3 × 10−15 W/cm2 for light whose wavelength is 556 nm. What is the corresponding photon ﬂux, in photons per square centimeter per second? 3.25. What is the binding energy of the last neutron in 17 O? 3.26. Calculate the number of hydrogen atoms in 1-g water. 3.27. If all the mass of an electron were converted to electromagnetic energy, what would be the (a) energy of the photon, in joules and in million electron volts? (b) wavelength of the photon, in angstrom units? 3.28. The thermal energy content of 1 U.S. gal (3.79 L) gasoline is 36.65 kW hours. To what weight of nuclear fuel, grams, does this amount of energy correspond? 3.29. The binding energy of K electrons in copper is 8.980 keV and 0.953 keV in the L level. What is the wavelength of the K α characteristic X-ray? 3.30. The ﬁrst ionization potential of aluminum is 4.2 eV. What is the maximum wavelength of light that can ionize an aluminum atom?

83

84

CHAPTER 3

3.31. Two alpha particles are separated by a distance of 4 × 10−15 m. Calculate the (a) repulsive electrical force between them. (b) attractive gravitational force between them. 3.32. The bonding energy of a C−C bond is about 100 kcal/mol. What is the corresponding energy, expressed as eV/bond?

SUGGESTED READINGS Born, M. Atomic Physics, 8th ed. Hafner, Darien, CT, 1970. Cohen, B. L. Concepts of Nuclear Physics. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971. Evans, R. D. The Atomic Nucleus. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955. Friedlander, G., Kennedy, J. W., Macias, E. S., and Miller, J. M. Nuclear and Radiochemistry, 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1981. Glasstone, S. Sourcebook on Atomic Energy, 3rd ed. D. Van Nostrand, Princeton, NJ, 1967. Halliday, D., Resnick, R., and Walker, J. Fundamentals of Physics, 7th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2004. Heisenberg, W. Philosophic Problems of Nuclear Science. Fawcett Publications, Greenwich, CT, 1966. Hunt, S. E. Nuclear Physics for Engineers and Scientists. Halstead Press, New York, 1987. Krane, K. S. Introductory Nuclear Physics. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1987. Lapp, R. E., and Andrews, H. L. Nuclear Radiation Physics, 4th ed. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1972. Lilley, J. S. Nuclear Physics: Principles and Application. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2001. Moore, J. W., Stanitski, C. L., and Jurs, P. C. Chemistry, the Molecular Science. Thomson Brooks Cole, Belmont, CA, 2005. Patel, S. B. Nuclear Physics: An Introduction. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1988. Peierls, R. E. The Laws of Nature. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1956. Powers, T. Heisenberg’s War. Little, Brown and Company, Boston, MA, 1993. Rhodes, R. The Making of the Atomic Bomb. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1986. Rhodes, R. Dark Sun. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1996. Rogers, E. M. Physics for the Inquiring Mind. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1960. Rutherford, E. On the scattering of alpha and beta particles by matter and the structure of the atom. Phil Mag, 21:669–688, 1911. Rutherford, E., Chadwick, J., and Ellis, C. D. Radiations from Radioactive Substances. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1930. Semat, H., and Albright, J. R. Introduction to Atomic and Nuclear Physics, 5th ed. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 1972. Serway, R. A., and Jewett, J. W. Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 6th ed. Thomson Brooks Cole, Belmont, CA, 2004. Smyth, H. D. Atomic Energy for Military Purposes. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1945. Wehr, M. R., Richards, J. A., and Adair, T. W. Physics of the Atom, 4th ed. Addison Wesley, Reading, MA, 1985. Young, H. D, and Freedman, R. A. Sears and Zemansky’s University Physics with Modern Physics, 11th ed. Addison Wesley, Reading, MA, 2003.

4 R ADIATION SOURCES RADIOACTIVITY Radioactivity may be deﬁned as spontaneous nuclear transformations in unstable atoms that result in the formation of new elements. These transformations are characterized by one of several different mechanisms, including alpha-particle emission, beta-particle and positron emission, and orbital electron capture. Each of these reactions may or may not be accompanied by gamma radiation. Radioactivity and radioactive properties of nuclides are determined by nuclear considerations only and are independent of the chemical and physical states of the radionuclide. Radioactive properties of atoms, therefore, cannot be changed by any means and are unique to the respective radionuclides. The exact mode of radioactive transformation depends on the energy available for the transition. The available energy, in turn, depends on two factors: on the particular type of nuclear instability—that is, whether the neutron-to-proton ratio is too high or too low for the particular nuclide under consideration—and on the mass–energy relationship among the parent nucleus, daughter nucleus, and emitted particle.

TRANSFORMATION MECHANISMS All radioactive transformations fall into one of the following categories:

r Alpha emission r Isobaric transitions (Given the atomic number of the parent nucleus is Z, that

r

of the daughter nucleus is Z + 1, if a beta particle is emitted, or Z − 1, if a positron is emitted. The atomic mass number of the daughter is same as that of the parent.) ◦ Beta (negatron) emission ◦ Positron emission ◦ Orbital electron capture Isomeric transitions (The atomic number and the atomic mass number of the daughter is same as that of the parent.) ◦ Gamma ray emission ◦ Internal conversion 85

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Alpha Emission An alpha particle is a highly energetic helium nucleus that is emitted from the nucleus of an unstable atom when the neutron-to-proton ratio is too low. It is a positively charged, massive particle consisting of an assembly of two protons and two neutrons. Since atomic numbers and mass numbers are conserved in alpha transitions, it follows that the result of alpha emission is a daughter whose atomic number is two less than that of the parent and whose atomic mass number is four less than that of the parent. In the case of 210 Po, for example, the reaction is 210 84 Po

→ 42 He + 206 82 Pb.

In this example, 210 Po has a neutron-to-proton ratio of 126 : 84, or 1.5 : 1. After decaying by alpha-particle emission, a stable daughter nucleus, 206 Pb, is formed, whose neutron-to-proton ratio is 1.51 : 1. With one exception, 147 62 Sm, naturally occurring alpha emitters are found only among elements of atomic number greater than 82. The explanation for this is twofold: First is the fact that the electrostatic repulsive forces in the heavy nuclei increase much more rapidly than the cohesive nuclear forces and the magnitude of the electrostatic forces, consequently, may closely approach or even exceed that of the nuclear force; the second part of the explanation is concerned with the fact that the emitted particle must have sufﬁcient energy to overcome the high potential barrier at the surface of the nucleus resulting from the presence of the positively charged nucleons. This potential barrier may be graphically represented by the curve in Figure 4-1. The inside of the nucleus, because of the negative potential there, may be thought of as a potential well that is surrounded by a wall whose height is about 25 MeV for an alpha particle inside a high-atomicnumbered nucleus. According to quantum mechanical theory, an alpha particle may escape from the potential well by tunneling through the potential barrier. For alpha emission to be observed from the high-atomic-numbered naturally occurring elements, theoretical considerations demand that an alpha particle have a kinetic energy greater than 3.8 MeV. This condition is veriﬁed by the experimental ﬁnding that the lowest energy alpha particle emitted from the high-atomic-numbered elements is 3.93 MeV. This alpha particle originates in 232 Th. (Samarium-147 emits an alpha particle whose energy is only 2.18 MeV. This low energy is consistent, however,

Figure 4-1. Potential inside and in the vicinity of a nucleus.

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Figure 4-2. Tracks in a Wilson cloud chamber of alpha particles from ThC (212 Bi), energy = 8.78 MeV. (Reproduced with permission from Rutherford E, Chadwick J, Ellis CD, Radiations from Radioactive Substances. New York, NY: Macmillan; 1930.)

with the theoretical calculations mentioned above if the low atomic number, 62, of samarium is considered.) The question regarding the source of this kinetic energy naturally arises. This energy results from the net decrease in mass following the formation of the alpha particle. Generally, for alpha emission to occur, the following conservation equation must be satisﬁed: Mp = Md + Mα + 2Me + Q,

(4.1)

where Mp , Md , Mα , and Me are respectively equal to the masses of the parent, the daughter, the emitted alpha particle, and the two orbital electrons that are lost during the transition to the lower atomic numbered daughter, while Q is the total energy release associated with the radioactive transformation. In the case of the decay of 210 Po, for example, we have, from Eq. (4.1), Q = MPo − MPb − Mα − 2Me = 210.04850 − 206.03883 − 4.00277 − 2 × 0.00055 = 0.0058 amu(atomic mass units). In energy units, Q = 0.0058 amu × 931 MeV/amu = 5.4 MeV This Q value represents the total energy associated with the transformation of 210 Po. Since no gamma ray is emitted in this transition, the total released energy appears as kinetic energy and is divided between the alpha particle and the daughter, which recoils after the alpha particle is emitted. The exact energy division between the alpha and recoil nucleus depends on the mass of the daughter and may be calculated by applying the laws of conservation of energy and momentum. If M and m are the

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masses, respectively, of the recoil nucleus and the alpha particle, and if V and v are their respective velocities, then Q=

1 1 MV 2 + mv 2 . 2 2

(4.2)

We have, according to the law of conservation of momentum, MV = mv

(4.3)

or V =

mv . M

When the value for V from Eq. (4.3) is substituted into Eq. (4.2), we have Q=

1 m2 v2 1 + mv 2 . M 2 M2 2

(4.4)

If we let E represent the kinetic energy of the alpha particle, 1/2 mv2 , then Eq. (4.4) may be rewritten as m +1 Q=E M or E =

Q . 1 + (m/M)

(4.5)

According to Eq. (4.5), the kinetic energy of the alpha particle emitted in the decay of 210 Po is E =

5.4 MeV = 5.3 MeV. (1 + 4 / 206)

The kinetic energy of the recoil nucleus, therefore, is 0.1 MeV. Alpha particles are essentially monoenergetic. However, alpha-particle spectrograms do show discrete energy groupings, with small energy differences among the different groups. These small differences are attributed to differences in the energy level of the daughter nucleus. That is, a nucleus that emits one of the lower energy alpha particles is left in an excited state, while the nucleus that emits the highest energy alpha particle for any particular nuclide is usually left in the “ground” state. A nucleus left in an excited state usually emits its energy of excitation in the form of a gamma ray. It should be pointed out that this gamma ray is emitted immediately, almost always in 140 days.

r gases as well as aerosols.

The updated HRTM is designed to calculate the DC, which is deﬁned as the committed dose per unit intake, rem/μCi or Sv/Bq, of an airborne radionuclide. The HRTM supplies only the ﬁrst part of this calculation—the dose to the lung and the rate of transfer of the inhaled radioactivity to the body ﬂuids and to the GI tract. The biokinetic model for the particular radionuclide must then be used to complete the calculation of the DC. The ICRP 66 model consists of ﬁve interrelated submodels: anatomical (morphometric), physiological, deposition, clearance, and dosimetry models. Anatomical Model. The anatomical model describes the overall structure, including airway dimensions, of the HRT. ICRP 66 models the respiratory tract by four sequential anatomical regions (Fig. 8-10): 1. Extrathoracic (ET) region—the portion of the respiratory tract outside of the chest, which contains two subparts:

r ET1 , consisting of the anterior nasal airways. r ET2 , consisting of the posterior nasal airways, pharynx, and larynx. 2. Bronchial (BB) region, which includes the trachea and the bronchi. 3. Bronchiolar (bb) region, consisting of bronchioles and terminal bronchioles. 4. Alveolar-interstitial (AI) region, which consists of the respiratory bronchioles, the alveoli, and interstitial connective tissue. Each region is drained by lymphatic ﬂuid, which ﬂows into lymph nodes. The lymph nodes that drain the ET region are symbolized by LNET , and those that drain the 3 thoracic regions are labeled LNTH . For dosimetry purposes, only LNTH nodes contribute to the lung dose. The ET lymph nodes, LNET , are considered as “other tissues” when calculating the effective dose. The physical dimensions and branching angles of the air pathways in the tracheobronchial tree are listed in ICRP 66 for the adult male. For example, the trachea is given as 1.65 cm (diameter) × 9.1 cm (length)—each of the ﬁve primary bronchi is 1.2 cm (diameter) × 3.8 cm (length)—and is at an angle of 36◦ (which represents the change in direction of the bulk ﬂow of air from the trachea into the primary bronchi). Continuous bifurcation of the bronchi leads to increasing numbers of smaller airways, until the dead-ended alveoli are reached. The alveoli are the functional part of the respiratory tract, where inhaled oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled. The total surface area available for gas exchange in the alveoli is 140 m2 . These dimensions are scaled down for females and for younger persons.

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Anterior Nasal Passage Posterior Nasal Passage

ET1

Extrathoracic

Pharynx Nasal Part Oral Part ET2

Larynx

Thoracic

BB Trachea

Bronchial Main Bronchi

Bronchi

Bronchioles

Bronchiolar

bb Al

Alveolar Interstitial

bb Bronchioles Terminal Bronchioles

Al

Respiratory Bronchioles

Alveolar Duct + Alveoli

Figure 8-10. Anatomical divisions of the human respiratory tract. (Reproduced with permission from ICRP Publication 66: Human Respiratory Tract Model for Radiological Protection. Ann ICRP. 1994; c 1994 International Commission on Radiological Protection.) 24(1–3). Copyright

Physiological Model. The physiological model describes the functional aspects of the HRT. The kinetics of respiration, including volumes of inhaled air and inhalation rates are given for males and females of various ages and for the four different levels of physical exertion that the model considers, and for nose and for mouth breathers. Correction factors are also given for conditions that modify or impair the

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normal functioning of the respiratory tract, such as old age, various illnesses, and smoking. The importance of these physiological considerations may be illustrated by comparing the velocity of inhaled air in the trachea of a male worker when he is seated and when he is engaged in heavy exercise. While sitting, he inhales air at a maximum rate of 300 mL/s. Using the default tracheal diameter of 1.65 cm, this leads to a maximum airstream velocity in the trachea of 140 cm/s. While engaged in heavy physical exertion, the worker’s maximum inhalation rate is 1670 mL/s, which leads to a maximum airstream velocity of 781 cm/s. These two very different velocities lead to signiﬁcant differences in deposition patterns of inhaled particles. Deposition Model. Deposition of particles in the respiratory tract is calculated on the basis of particle size, velocity of the air, and the geometrical contours of the air path. Deposition, therefore, depends on the person’s age, sex, and ventilation rate. When the mean particle size of an aerosol distribution exceeds about 0.5 μm, deposition is determined mainly by the aerodynamic properties of the particle, and the AMAD or the MMAD is used in the description of the aerosol size. (For a solid radioactive particle, the activity is directly proportional to the particle’s mass.) When the mean size is less than about 0.5 μm, diffusion is the main deposition mechanism, and the mean size is expressed as the activity median thermodynamic diameter (AMTD). To simulate particle deposition, the respiratory tract is modeled as a preﬁlter followed by a successive series of ﬁlters (Fig. 8-11). The preﬁlter represents the nares and the anterior nasal airways. Each of the successive ﬁlters represents the successive anatomical regions in the respiratory tract. Therefore, smaller fractions of the inhaled particles pass through each successive ﬁlter. In this model, ﬁltration occurs during both inhalation and exhalation. Using this model, and considering the simultaneous deposition mechanisms of inertial impaction, gravitational settling, and diffusion of particles in the respiratory tract, deposition fractions for each region were calculated for equivalent sizes of 0.0006–100 μm. The deposition of 0.001–100 μm particles in the respiratory tract of a male worker are plotted in Figure 8-12. Table 8-11 lists the regional depositions of a 5-μm AMAD aerosol inhaled by an adult male reference worker and the regional depositions of a 1-μm AMAD aerosol in an adult male member of the public. Clearance Model. Radioactive particles are cleared from the HRTM by three independent processes: mechanical transfer, dissolution of particles, and radioactive decay. Actual clearance is the sum of these three processes acting simultaneously. The clearance model deals with the transfer, to the throat, of the deposited radioactive particles up the respiratory tract from the deposition sites and then into the GI tract by swallowing. Concurrently with this mechanical transfer via the ciliary action, the model deals with dissolution of deposited particles and the absorption of the dissolved radioactivity into the blood. It also accounts for the time-dependent changing clearance rates from each of the intrathoracic regions. Mechanical Transfer. Mechanical transfer, which accounts for the transport of particles to the GI tract and to the lymph nodes, is affected by ciliary action and phagocytosis within the lungs and by sneezing and coughing in the ET airways. The modeled mechanical clearance rates are independent of particle type, sex, and

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Figure 8-11. Filter model for deposition of inhaled particles in the respiratory tract of a reference worker. Two intake pathways are considered: the nasal pathway for which the fractional airﬂow is F n ; and the oral pathway, for which the fractional airﬂow is 1– Fn . The subscripts “in” and “ex” of the ﬁltration efﬁciency, η, represent the inhalation and exhalation phases of the breathing cycle. (Reproduced with permission from ICRP Publication 66: Human Respiratory Tract Model for Radiological c 1994 International Commission on Radiological Protection. Ann ICRP. 1994; 24(1–3). Copyright Protection.)

age. However, in vivo laboratory studies on animals and bioassay studies on humans show a time dependence of pulmonary clearance rate. That is, initially most particles are rapidly cleared, and the remaining particles are cleared more slowly. The time dependence is modeled by dividing each region into several compartments that empty at different rates, as shown in Figure 8-13. Each region contains a compartment that is very slowly cleared. For ET2 , BB, and bb regions, the very slowly cleared compartment is subscripted “seq” (for sequestered). The fraction of each regional deposit that is assigned to the several compartments is speciﬁed by the model, and is listed in Table 8-12.

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Figure 8-12. Fractional deposition in each region of the respiratory tract of a reference nose-breathing worker as functions of (A). activity median thermodynamic diameter, AMTD, and (B). the activity median aerodynamic diameter, AMAD. Deposition is expressed as a fraction of the activity present in the volume of inspired air, and the radioactive particles sizes are log-normally distributed. The particles’ speciﬁc gravity is 3 and the shape factor is 1.5. Abbreviations: AI, alveolar-interstitial; bb, bronchiolar; ET, extrathoracic; BB, bronchial. (Reproduced with permission from ICRP Publication 66: Human Respiratory Tract Model for Radiological Protection. Ann ICRP. 1994; c 1994 International Commission on Radiological Protection.) 24(1–3). Copyright

For modeling purposes, the numerical values for the size-dependent parameter f s in Table 8-12 is given for two categories of aerodynamic diameter, dae : 0.5 r if dae ≤ 2.5 ρ μm, χ then f s = 0.5. 0.5 r if dae > 2.5 ρ μm, χ 3 , 4 then f s = 0.5 exp −0.63 dae χρ − 2.5 . TABLE 8-11. Regional Deposition of 5-μm and 1-μm AMAD Aerosols in Two Persons REGION

WORKER, 5 μm (%)

ADULT MALE, 1 μm (%)

ET1 ET2 BB bb AI

33.9 39.9 1.8 (33%in BB2 ) 1.1 (40% in bb2 ) 5.3

16.5 21.1 1.2 (47% in BB2 ) 1.7 (49% in bb2 ) 11.7

Total

82.0

51.2

Abbreviations: ET, extrathoracic; BB, bronchial; bb, bronchiolar; AI, alveolar-interstitial. Reproduced with permission from Guide for the Practical Application of the ICRP Human Respiratory Tract Model, c 2002 International Commission on Radiological Protection. Supporting Guidance 3. Ann ICRP. 2002; 32(1,2). Copyright

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Extrathoracic

Anterior Nasal

1

Environment

ET1 14

NasoOropharynx/ Larynx

16

0.001

100

ETseq

LNET 13

ET2

12

GI Tract 15

11

Surface Transport

0. 03

Sequestered in Tissue

10

0.01

BBseq

Bronchi

BB2 9

BB1

8

7

3

0.0

0.01

Bronchioles

LNTH

bbseq

2

bb2 6

bb1 5

4

0.0001

Alveolar Interstitium

0.00002

0.001

AI3 3

10

0.02

AI2

AI1 2

1

Thoracic Figure 8-13. Compartmental model to represent time-dependent particle transport in the respiratory tract. The arrows show the transport pathway, and the numbers represent the compartmental clearance rates, per day. Abbreviations: ET, extrathoracic; LNET , lymph nodes (extrathoracic); LNTH , lymph nodes (thoracic); BB, bronchial; bb, bronchiolar; AI, alveolar-interstitial; GI, gastrointestinal. (Reproduced with permission from ICRP Publication c 1994 66: Human Respiratory Tract Model for Radiological Protection. Ann ICRP. 1994; 24(1–3). Copyright International Commission on Radiological Protection.)

The partitioning among the compartments in the bb and BB regions is dependent on the particle size; the partition factors for the other regions are independent of the particle size. For example, for the particles deposited in the AI region, 30% of the deposit is in the AI1 compartment, which empties to the bb1 compartment at a rate of 0.02 (2%) per day, 60% of the AI deposit is in the AI2 compartment, TABLE 8-12. Factors for Partitioning Regional Deposits Among the Regional Compartments REGION ET2 BB

bb

AI

COMPARTMENT

FRACTION TO COMPARTMENT

ET2 ETseq BB1 BB2 BBseq bb1 bb2 bbseq AI1 AI2 AI3

0.9995 0.0005 0.993 –fs fs 0.007 0.993 – fs fs 0.007 0.3 0.6 0.1

Abbreviations: ET, extrathoracic; BB, bronchial; bb, bronchiolar; AI, alveolar-interstitial. Reproduced with permission from ICRP Publication 66: Human Respiratory Tract Model for Radiological Protection. Ann c 1994 International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP. 1994; 24(1–3). Copyright

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whose clearance rate to bb1 is 0.001 per day. Ten percent of the deposit is in the AI3 compartment, which is cleared very slowly at a rate of 0.0001 per day to bb1 and at a rate of 0.00002 per day to the thoracic lymph nodes, LNTH . Additionally S t per day (see paragraph below and Table 8-13) dissolves and is absorbed into the blood. The effective clearance rate for compartment AI3 is the sum of the clearance rates for each of the three pathways: λE (AI3 ) = 0.0001 + 0.00002 + St per day. The quantity of activity in the AI region at time t days after deposition of activity Q Bq (or μCi) in region AI can be described mathematically by the three compartment retention curve: Q AI (t) = 0.3 e −0.02t + 0.6 e −0.01t + 0.1 e −(0.00012+St )t .

(8.26)

In the BB and bb regions, 0.007 of the deposit is sequestered and is cleared to LNTH at a rate of 0.01 per day. The partition fractions of the regional deposits among the several different compartments are listed in Table 8-12. Particle Dissolution. Transfer of particulate radioactivity to the blood is modeled as a two-stage process: dissolution of the particle followed by its absorption into the body ﬂuids, including the blood. The model assumes that absorption into the body ﬂuids occurs at the same rate from all the parts of the HRTM except ET1 , where no absorption occurs. The rate of solubilization of a particle is a function of its size, because dissolution is a surface phenomenon. As a particle dissolves, its surface area rapidly decreases. The rate of dissolution, therefore, decreases with time as the particle continues to dissolve. The HRTM deals with this decreasing rate of dissolution in two alternate ways. In the ﬁrst time-dependent alternative, a fraction of the deposited activity, f r , dissolves rapidly and is absorbed at a rate of Sr per day. The remaining fraction, 1 – fr , dissolves slowly and is absorbed at a rate Ss per day. According to this model, the overall fractional dissolution rate, f d , of the intrapulmonary deposit dissolving and being absorbed at time t days after deposition is f d (t) = f r e−Sr t + (1 − f r )e−Ss t .

(8.27)

A situation where the dissolution and absorption rates increased with time could be modeled by the second alternative through a suitable choice of values for the parameters. In the alternative model, shown in Figure 8-14, the regional deposits are said to be in an “initial” state. Some of these particles dissolve at a constant rate Sp per day, and the rest of the particles are simultaneously changed into a “transformed” state at a rate Spt per day. In the transformed state, the particles dissolve and the dissolved activity is absorbed into the body ﬂuids at a rate of St per day, which is different from the absorption rate of the untransformed particles. For the usual case where the dissolution and absorption rates decrease with time, both models are equivalent. The parameters of the two alternative absorption models are related by the following equations: Sp = Ss + f r (Sr − Ss ),

(8.28)

Spt = (1 − f r )(Sr − Ss ), and

(8.29)

S t = Ss .

(8.30)

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Particles in Initial State

Particles in Transformed State

s pt

f s b p

f s b t

(1-f )s b p

(1-f )s b t

Bound Material

sb

Blood

Figure 8-14. Compartmental model for time-dependent absorption into blood. Source: Human respiratory tract model for radiological protection. (Reproduced with permission from ICRP Publication 66: Human Respiratory Tract Model for Radiological Protection. Ann ICRP. 1994; 24(1–3). Copyright c 1994 International Commission on Radiological Protection.)

In the absence of material-speciﬁc absorption rates, the default values for the solubility and absorption parameters recommended by the ICRP for each of the three solubility–absorption categories are listed in Table 8-13. Both alternatives postulate that a certain fraction, f b , of the dissolved particles is chemically bound to the tissue, and that the bound material eventually diffuses into the body ﬂuids. This “bound” state is a special case for which speciﬁc binding data must be available. Therefore, the “bound” state is not used for setting default values, that is, f b = 0 for all three solubility–absorption categories. The model representing the overall clearance of particles from the respiratory tract is shown in Figure 8-15.

TABLE 8-13. Default Values of Absorption Parameters for Type F, M, and S Materials PARAMETER fr Sr (d−1 ) Ss (d−1 ) S p (d−1 ) S pt (d−1 ) St (d−1 )

F 1 100 — 100 0 —

M 0.1 100 0.005 10 90 0.005

S 0.001 100 0.0001 0.1 100 0.0001

Reproduced with permission from ICRP Publication 66: Human Respiratory Tract Model for Radiological Protection. Ann c 1994 International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP. 1994; 24(1–3). Copyright

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GI Tract 14 13

12 9

10

13T

11 8

7 Spt

6

5

4

3 2 1 Particles in Initial State fbsp (1 - fb)sp

10T

12T

11T

ET

9T

8T

7T

BB

6T

5T

4T

bb

3T 2T 1T AI Particles in Transformed State fbst (1 - fb)st

LNET b

ETb

LNTHb

BBb bbb

AIb Bound Material sb Blood Figure 8-15. Overall compartmental model for respiratory tract clearance, including both timedependent particle transport and absorption into the blood. Abbreviations: GI, gastrointestinal; ET, extrathoracic; BB, bronchial; bb, bronchiolar; AI, alveolar-interstitial; LNET , lymph nodes (extrathoracic); LNTH , lymph nodes (thoracic).

Dosimetric Model. The HRT is considered as two separate organs for dosimetric purposes. The thoracic region is considered to be the lungs, and the ET region is considered as one of the “remainder” tissues when we calculate the EDE. Each of these organs consists of several different types of cells of differing radiosensitivity, and lie at different depths below the tissue–air interface (Table 8-14). Figure 8-16 shows the modeled tube that contains the tissue–air interface and the source and target tissues in airways in the ET, BB, and bb regions. For example, the sensitive target cells in the bb region are the nuclei of the secretory (Clara) cells (Fig. 8-17) that lie within the epithelial layer shown in Figure 8-16. These cells are believed to be the progenitor cells for squamous cell carcinoma, the most frequently occurring lung cancer. These depths are important because alphas, betas, and electrons that are emitted from radioactive particles that are deposited on the interface surface dissipate some of their energy in passing through the less-sensitive tissue. Thus, only a fraction of the energy of the emitted radiation is absorbed by the sensitive target cells. Figure 8-18 shows the absorbed fractions, AF (T←S) of beta particle energy that is absorbed by the target cells in the bb region. ICRP Publication 66 contains values for the AFs of all the target cells from alphas, betas, and electrons that originate in the various parts of the respiratory tract, as well as tables of the speciﬁc AFs of photon energy in various tissues and organs with the lungs as the source. The HRTM is used to calculate the radiation dose to the lungs from an inhaled radioisotope. The dose to the rest of the body from the radioactivity transferred from the respiratory system to the blood requires knowledge of the

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Mucus (Gel) (Source on Surface) Cilia (Sol)

Epithelium

Secretory Cells Basal Cells (Target Cell Nuclei)

Air

Basem*nt Membrane

Subepithelial Layer

Lamina Propria Macrophages (Source in Connentive Tissue)

Figure 8-16. Simpliﬁed geometrical model of the tissue–air interface and the source and target tissues in dosimetry of the extrathoracic, bronchial, and bronchiolar regions. (Reproduced with permission from ICRP Publication 66: Human Respiratory Tract Model for Radiological Protection. Ann ICRP. 1994; c 1994 International Commission on Radiological Protection.) 24(1–3). Copyright

2 μm

Mucus (Gel Layer)

4 μm

Cillia + Sol Layer

4 μm Epithelium

Nuclei of 15 μm Secretory Cells (Target)

8 μm

Basem*nt Membrane 5 μm

Macrophage Layer Subepithelial Layer of Tissue

5 μm

Lamina Propria

20 μm

Alveolar Interstitium

Figure 8-17. Dosimetric model of the target cells (secretory cells) in the bronchiolar wall of the bronchiolar region. (Reproduced with permission from ICRP Publication 66: Human Respiratory Tract Model c 1994 International Commission on for Radiological Protection. Ann ICRP. 1994; 24(1–3). Copyright Radiological Protection.)

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Figure 8-18. Absorbed fractions for betas emitted in the bronchiolar (bb) region. Curves are shown for emissions from the mucous gel layer (fast mucous), sol layer (slow mucous), sequestered, and bound activity. (Reproduced with permission from ICRP Publication 66: Human Respiratory Tract Model for Radiological Protection. Ann ICRP. c 1994 International Commission on Radiological Protection.) 1994; 24(1–3). Copyright

TABLE 8-14. Target Cells and Assigned Fraction of w T (Lung) TARGET CELL

REGION

COMPARTMENT

Extra thoracic airways

ET1 (anterior nose) ET2 (posterior nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx) LNET (lymphatics)

Basal Basal

BB (bronchial)

Basal Secretory Secretory

Thoracic airways (lungs)

bb (bronchiolar) AI (alveolar-interstitial) LNTH (lymphatics) a 2.0N5

CRITICAL TISSUE DEPTH (μm)

MASS (kg)

A OF wT

40–50 40–50

2.0N5a 4.5N4

0.001 0.998

1.5N2

0.001

4.3N4 8.6N4 1.9N3 1.1 1.5N2

0.333 0.333 0.333 0.333 0.001

35–50 10–40 4–12

means 2 × 10−5 , 4.5N4 means 4.5 × 10−4 , etc.

Note: Regional doses, with weighting factors A assigned for the partition of the radiation detriment, are summed to give a value of committed dose equivalent for the extrathoracic region and another for the thoracic region, as follows: HET = HET1 × AET1 + HET2 × AET2 + HLN(ET) × A LN( E T ) HTH = HBB × ABB + Hbb × Abb + HAI × AAI + HLN(TH) × ALN(TH) HTH is considered the lung, wT = 0.12 When calculating effective dose equivalent, HET is considered a “remainder” tissue dose. Reproduced with permission from ICRP Publication 66: Human Respiratory Tract Model for Radiological Protection. Ann ICRP. 1994; c 1994 International Commission on Radiological Protection. 24(1–3). Copyright

386

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metabolic kinetics or a physiologically based biokinetic model for that radioisotope.) or element. To calculate the lung dose from inhaled radioactive particles we

1. determine the regional deposition of the particles, 2. apportion the deposition within the regional compartments, 3. calculate the activity in each compartment, including the activity transported into the compartment from other compartments, 4. calculate compartmental mean residence time (MRT), including activity lost from each compartment by mechanical transport, dissolution, and radioactive decay, 5. calculate the total number of disintegrations in each compartment, 6. calculate the total energy emitted in each compartment, 7. calculate the total energy absorbed by the target tissues, using values from Tables G and H in ICRP 66 (abstracted in Table 8-17), 8. divide absorbed energy by mass of target tissues (Table 8-13, which is abstracted from Table 5, ICRP 66), 9. multiply the dose absorbed in each tissue by the appropriate radiation and tissue weighting factors, w R and w T , and 10. calculate lung dose = w R HT w T .

Calculation of the lung dose using the ICRP 66 HRTM is a long, tedious, and complex operation that requires input of many physiological and physical parameters whose values are listed in the model. Accordingly, computer models that incorporate these many numerical values and computational methodologies have been devised. A computer program for the respiratory tract, such as LUDEP, is usually used together with an internal dosimetry program, such as CINDY or IMBA to calculate the doses to other organs and the effective dose from inhaled radionuclides. The principles of the HRTM computational methodology may be illustrated with the following relatively simple example:

W

Example 8.6

Calculate the lung dose from the intake of 1 Bq 14 C tagged tungsten carbide, WC, particles whose AMAD is 5μm. The CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics lists WC as insoluble, and thus is a type S material; its speciﬁc gravity is 15.6, and the default shape factor of 1.5 will be used in the calculation. Solution From the regional deposition curves, we ﬁnd the fraction of the intake that is deposited in each region.

RADIATION SAFETY GUIDES

387

REGION

FRACTION DEPOSITED

ET1 ET2 BB bb AI

0.34 0.40 0.018 0.011 0.053

Table 8-15 (17-B, ICRP 66) gives the size-dependent partition of a regional deposit into the several regional compartments. For the BB region, the slowest cleared fraction of the bronchial deposit is called BBseq , and is listed as 0.007. The next morerapidly cleared fraction is listed as f s , and fastest cleared fraction is given 0.993 − f s . The value for f s is size dependent, and is given by the following relations: 0.5 r for dae ≤ 2.5 ρ μm, f s = 0.5, χ " 0.5 ! χ r for dae > 2.5 ρ − 2.5 . μm, f s = 0.5 exp −0.63 dae χ ρ For the case of WC we have: 2.5(15.6/1.5)0.5 = 8.1. Since dae = 5 μm < 8.1, therefore, f s = 0.5. Using this value for f s , we can calculate the activity deposited in each of the regional compartments: The MRT in each compartment is given by MRT =

1 , λE

(8.31)

where λE = effective clearance rate constant = λab + Ss + λR . For very long lived insoluble activity, λR ≈ 0, therefore, λE = (λab + 0.0001) per day. TABLE 8-15. Compartmental Distribution of Deposited Activity

REGION

REGIONAL FRACTIONAL DEPOSIT

COMPARTMENT

COMPARTMENTAL FRACTIONAL DEPOSIT

DEPOSITED ACTIVITY (Bq)

1 0.9995 0.0005

0.34 0.3998 0.0002

ET1 ET2

0.34 0.40

ET1 ET2 ETseq

BB

0.018

BB1 BB2 BBseq

0.993 − 0.5 = 0.493 0.5 0.007

0.22887 0.0090 0.00013

bb

0.011

bb1 bb2 bbseq

0.993 − 0.5 = 0.493 0.5 0.007

0.00542 0.0055 0.000077

AI

0.053

AI1 AI2 AI3

ET, extrathoracic; BB, bronchial; bb, bronchiolar; AI, alveolar-interstitial.

0.3 0.6 0.1

0.0159 0.0318 0.0053

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TABLE 8-16. Mean Compartmental Residence Times REGION ET1 ET2

COMPARTMENT ET1 ET2 ETseq LNTH BB1 BB2 BBseq bb1 bb2 bbseq AI1 AI2 AI3

LNTH BB

bb

AI

λ E (d− 1 )

MRT (d)

1 + 0.0001 100 + 0.0001 0.001 + 0.0001 0.0001 10 + 0.0001 0.03 + 0.0001 0.01 + 0.0001 2 + 0.0001 0.03 + 0.0001 0.01 + 0.0001 0.02 + 0.0001 0.001 + 0.0001 0.0001 + 0.00002 + 0.0001

0.9999 0.01 909.1 10,000 0.1 33.223 99.01 0.499975 33.223 99.010 49.751 909.1 4545.5

Abbreviations: MRT, mean residence time; ET, extrathoracic; LNTH , lymph nodes (thoracic); BB, bronchial; bb, bronchiolar; AI, alveolar-interstitial.

For example, the transfer rate λab from bb2 to BB1 is 0.03 per day. Therefore, MRT in compartment bb2 is MRT(bb2 ) =

1 = 33.223 days. (0.03 + 0.0001)

The mean compartmental residential times for all the pulmonary compartments, as calculated above for compartment bb2 , are listed in Table 8-16. Now, we will calculate the number of disintegrations in a compartment that contribute to the dose to that compartment. These disintegrations are from activity that had been deposited there during inhalation plus activity that had been transferred from deeper compartments. Tissues in AI1 , AI2 , and AI3 are irradiated only, in the case of pure alpha and pure low-energy beta emitters, such as 14 C betas, by the activity deposited there. High-energy betas and gammas from activity in the other compartments can also irradiate the AI region. In our example, we have only the low-energy betas from 14 C, and thus the compartments in the AI region are irradiated only from the activity deposited there. The number of disintegrations in any P region that contribute to the dose is the sum of the contributions from the several compartments within that region: The number of disintegrations in a compartment, ci, that contribute to the dose is dis s (8.32) × 8.64 × 104 × M RTci days, Nci (dose) = Aci s d and the total number of disintegrations in a region, NRi, is NRi = Nci . (8.33) For the AI region, for example, the number of disintegrations in the three compartments is NAI1 NAI2 NAI3 NAI

= = = =

0.0159 dps × 86400 s/d × 49.75 d = 68,346 disintegrations 0.0318 dps × 86400 s/d × 909.1d = 2,497,770 disintegrations 0.0053 dps × 86400 s/d × 4545.5 d = 2,081,475 disintegrations Total disintegrations in AI = 4,647,591 disintegrations

RADIATION SAFETY GUIDES

The bb compartments are irradiated by the activity deposited there plus the activity brought up from the compartments in the AI region. Activity transferred from a given compartment is equal to the activity initially deposited there minus the sum of the dissolved activity plus the decayed activity: Activity transferred = deposited activity − (dissolved + decayed) activity.

(8.34)

For long-lived activity, such as in 14 C, decay may be neglected. The slow dissolution rate (Table 8-13) is 0.0001 per day. For the half-day mean retention time, an insigniﬁcant amount will have dissolved, and we can ignore the decrease in activity by solution. Therefore, the number of disintegrations in bb1 due to activity transferred from AI1 to bb1 (AI1 → bb1 ), that contribute to the dose to bb1 is 0.0159 Bq ×

s 1dps × 86,400 × 0.499975 d = 687 disintegrations. Bq d

Similar calculations for transfers to bb1 from AI2 and AI3 plus the activity initially deposited there, yield a total of 2,318 disintegrations in compartment bb1 . In the bb2 compartment, we calculate 15,788 and in bbseq , 659 disintegrations. The number of disintegrations in each compartment that contribute to the regional dose, which was calculated by multiplying the activity in the source by the mean retention time from Table 8-16, is listed in Table 8-17. The radiosensitive target cells within the HRT are irradiated from several different sources of radioactive particles that are located in several different parts of the respiratory system. In the ET regions, for example, the radiation sources are particles that lie directly on the surface of the skin, by particles sequestered by macrophages that are concentrated in the subepithelial tissue of the airway wall, and by radionuclides chemically bound to the epithelium. Target cells in the BB and bb regions are irradiated by radioactive particles that are being transported by the fast-moving mucous and by the slow-moving mucous within the airways of the upper respiratory tract, by particles sequestered in macrophages, by radioactivity chemically bound to the airway wall, and by particles that are within the alveolar-interstitium. The AI region is irradiated by radioactive particles within the alveoli and by particles in the bb and BB regions. The fractions of the energy emitted from the several sources that are absorbed by the radiosensitive target cells, AF(T←S), are listed in ICRP 66 Tables H.1 to H.5. Absorbed fractions for three beta emitters: tritium, E¯ = 0.0056 MeV; 14 C, E¯ = 0.0498 MeV; and 32 P, E¯ = 0.6918 MeV, which are taken from ICRP 66 Table H.5, are shown in Table 8-18. To calculate the dose to the lung, we will (1) calculate the regional equivalent dose, HR , (2) multiply the regional doses by the appropriate fraction, A, of the tissue weighting factor, w T , for the lung (from Tables 8-3 and 8-14), and (3) sum the products HR × A to calculate the equivalent dose to the lungs. (HR × A) Sv (or rem). H lungs =

(8.35)

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TABLE 8-17. Compartmental Disintegrations That Contribute to Regional Dose AMOUNT NUMBER TOTAL DEPOSITED DEPOSITED OF NUMBER OF REGION COMPARTMENT IN (Bq) DISINTEGRATIONS DISINTEGRATIONS AI

AI1 AI2 AI3

AI1 AI2 AI3

0.0159 0.0318 0.0053

68,346 2,497,745 2,081,455

4,647,546

bb1

bb1 AI1 AI2 AI3

0.00542 0.0159 0.0318 0.0053

234 687 1374 104

2399

bb2 bbseq

bb2 bbseq

0.0055 0.000077

15,788 659

15,788 659

BB1

BB1 bb1 bb2 AI1 AI2 AI3

0.01187 0.00652 0.0055 0.0159 0.0318 0.0053

102 56 48 137 275 21

BB2 BBseq

639

BB2 BBseq

0.00591 0.000125

16,956 1072

16,956 1072

LNTH

LNTH

AI3 bbseq BBseq

0.0053 0.000077 0.000125

342,870 55,250 89,907

ET2

488,027

ET2

ET2 BB1 BB2 bb1 bb2 AI1 AI2 AI3

0.3998 0.01187 0.00591 0.00652 0.0044 0.0159 0.0318 0.0053

ETseq

ETseq

ET1

ET1

LNET

LNET

bb

BB

346 10 5 6 4 14 25 2

412

0.0002

15,709

15,709

ET1

0.34

29,373

29,373

ETseq

0.0002

15,709

15,709

Abbreviations: AI, alveolar-interstitial; bb, bronchiolar; BB, bronchial; LNT H , lymph nodes (thoracic); ET, extrathoracic; LN E T , lymph nodes (extrathoacic).

The regional dose is calculated by

HR =

N dis × E¯

×1

J Mev × 1.6 × 10−13 × AF(T ← S) dis MeV m kg

Sv Gy × wT , J/kg Gy

where E¯ is the average energy of the beta particle, MeV/dis. For the illustrative example, E¯ = 0.0498 MeV,

(8.36)

14

C beta in this

TABLE 8-18.

Values of Absorbed Fractions, AF (T ← S), for Negatrons

T

ET1

S

Surf.

ET2

Surf.

Bound

Fast Slow Sequ. mucous mucous Bound

BBbas

Sequ.

AI

BBsec Fast Slow mucous mucous Bound

Sequ.

AI

BBsec Fast Slow mucous mucous Bound

Sequ.

AI

E¯ 0.0056 0 0 1.82N1 2.81N5 0 0 2.50N1 1.01N6 0 0 2.18N6 5.00N1 0 0 0 0 3.98N1 0 0 0.0498 4.56N2 2.32N2 1.22N1 9.71N2 5.08N2 5.42N2 1.89N1 9.85N2 0 2.16N1 2.35N1 3.99N1 1.01N1 0 1.57N1 1.65N1 2.17N1 9.62N2 3.68N4 0.6918 1.13N2 8.03N3 1.32N2 1.25N2 1.56N2 1.58N2 1.81N2 1.60N2 2.37N4 3.50N2 3.67N2 3.73N2 2.98N2 4.69N4 9.20N3 9.25N3 1.02N2 8.26N3 1.71N3 Note: N1 = 10−1 , N5 = 10−5 ,etc. Abbreviations: T, target; S, source; ET, extrathoracic; BB, bronchial; bb, bronchiolar; AI, alveolar-interstitial. c 1994 Abstracted with permission from James AC, Akabani G, Birchall A, Jarvis NS, Briant NS, Durham JS. Annexe H: absorbed fractions for alpha, electron, and beta emissions. Ann ICRP. 1994; 24(1–3):459–482. Copyright International Commission on Radiological Protection.

391

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AF(T←S) is the fraction of the energy emitted from the source S by the target tissue T (from Table 8-17, which is abstracted from Tables H.1 to H.5, ICRP 66), m is the mass of the target tissue (Table 8-14 from Table 5, ICRP 66), and w T is the tissue weighting factor (from Table 8-14). Using the disintegration data from Table 8-15, the values of AF(T←S) from Table 8-17, the tissue weighting factor, w T, from Table 8-3 and tissue mass, m, from Table 8-13, we can calculate the dose to each region. For example, for the basal cells in the BB region, we have COMPARTMENT

NC , DISINTEGRATIONS

AF(T←S)C

BB1 BB2 BBseq AI

604 16,956 1,072 4,647,546

0.0508 0.0542 0.0985 0

E¯ = 0.0498 MeV, w T = 0.1665 (= 1/2 of 0.333), and m = 0.00043 kg. We obtain the dose to the basal cells in the BB region by summing the contributions from each of the compartments J Sv Mev × 1.6 × 10−13 × wT × wR dis MeV Gy = J/kg m kg × 1 Gy × NC dis × AF(T ← S)C , E

H(BB)bas

(8.37)

Substituting the respective values from the table above, we calculate H(BB)bas = 3.256 × 10−9 Sv. In a similar manner, we can calculate the doses to the other cells in the lung, the secretory cells in the BB region and in the bb region, then add the respective doses to obtain the dose to the lung. The data for making these calculations, as well as the data for the BB basal cells (which are calculated above), are listed in Table 8-19. The weighted sum of all the doses to the various parts of the lung is the dose to the lung from the inhalation, by an adult male, of 1 Bq of 14 C tagged tungsten carbide, WC, (type S) whose AMAD is 5 μm, is 2.8 × 10−8 Sv. Doses to other organs depend on the fate of the activity transferred to the blood. When calculating the EDE from this inhalation, the lung dose must be multiplied by the weighting factor for the lung, 0.12.

Gases and Vapors. Inhaled gases either dissolve in the ﬂuids of the airway surfaces and are “deposited” there, or are exhaled. Those gases that dissolve may interact

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TABLE 8-19. Summary of Dose Calculation Data for Example 8.6 TARGET m (kg) SOURCE DISINTEGRATIONS AF (T ← S)

wT

DOSE (Sv)

BBbas

4.3N4

BB1 BB2 BBseq AI

604 16,956 1072 4,647,546

0.0508 0.0542 0.0985 0

0.1665

3.256N9

BBsec

8.6N4

BB1 BB2 BBseq AI

604 16,956 1072 4,647,546

0.216 0.235 0.101 0

0.1665

6.440N9

bb

1.9N3

bb1 bb2 bbseq AI

2399 15,788 659 4,647,546

0.157 0.165 0.0962 3.68N4

0.333

6.641N9

AI

1.1

AI

4,647,546

1

0.333

1.121N8

LNTH

0.015

LNTH

488,034

1

0.001

2.592N10 = 2.757N8

Note: N4 = 10−4 . Abbreviations: AF (T ← S), absorbed fraction (source to target); BB, bronchial; bb, bronchiolar; AI, alveolar-interstitial; LNTH , lymph nodes (thoracic).

chemically with the tissue in the airway, or it may diffuse into bloodstream and be absorbed into the body, or both processes may occur simultaneously. The biological effects of an inhaled gas thus depend on its solubility and its chemical reactivity. Accordingly, all gases are assigned to one of three classes: SR-0, SR-1, and SR-2.

r Type SR-0 are gases of limited solubility and are nonreactive, such as H2 , He, Ar,

r

r

Kr, and SF6 . Such gases do not interact with the pulmonary tissues, and are not signiﬁcantly absorbed into the blood from the alveoli. It is reasonably assumed that all the inhaled SR-0 gas is also exhaled. Radiation dose to the lungs is due to the presence of the gas within the respiratory airways. The radiation hazard from type SR-0 gas usually is from external radiation due to immersion in the gaseous cloud. Radon is an inert gas, and would fall into this hazard category if its progeny were not radioactive. The hazard from radon is not from the gas, but from radon’s radioactive daughters. These radioactive descendents attach themselves to atmospheric dust particles, as explained in Chapter 7, and these dust particles are inhaled and deposited in the lungs. Type SR-1 are gases that are either soluble or reactive or both, such as CO, NO2 , I2 , CH3 I, and Hg vapor. In the absence of speciﬁc data on the interaction of the gas with the airway tissues, the HRTM assumes that all the inhaled gas is deposited, with 10% in the ET1 region, 20% in ET2 , 10% in BB, 20% in bb, and 40% in the alveoli. From the alveoli, they may be absorbed into the blood and transported to other organs and tissues where they may be metabolized or deposited. Type SR-2 gases are both highly soluble and reactive, such as HTO, SO2 , H2 S, HF, and Cl2 . These gases rapidly interact with the tissues in the upper respiratory tract

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CHAPTER 8

and do not reach the pulmonary region. Thus, they are considered to be totally deposited in the ET regions of the respiratory tract. For dosimetric calculations, the HRTM assumes that SR-2 gases are instantaneously absorbed into the body. The radiation dose then is calculated according to the biokinetic behavior of the gas in the body. Highly reactive gases and vapors that ordinarily may not penetrate into the alveoli may be adsorbed on the surface of airborne particles, and the particles may be deposited in the alveoli. There the reactive gases may interact with the gas exchange surfaces, which may result in biological damage to the AI tissues. This was the mechanism for the lethality of the Donora, PA, smog in 1948. Highly reactive SO2 gas was adsorbed on the surface of zinc-ammonium-sulfate particles that were of the optimum size for alveolar deposition. There, the adsorbed SO2 was rapidly oxidized, and the resultant sulfuric acid in the alveoli caused severe pulmonary edema, which led to the excess number of deaths. Generally, the dynamics of uptake and transfer for most gases are not precisely known (the case of CO and CO2 , whose biokinetic behaviors are reasonably well known, are notable exceptions to this generalization). Lacking speciﬁc knowledge of the uptake kinetics of a speciﬁc gas, the HRTM assumes extremely rapid, essentially instantaneous uptake of the inhaled gas. It should be noted that many airborne contaminants, including tritiated water, are absorbed through the skin as well as through the lungs. Such airborne contaminants that are regulated in the United States by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) are listed in Occupational Safety and Health Standards, 29 CFR 1910.1000.

Dose Coefﬁcient The HRTM allows us to calculate the dose only to the lung from inhaled radioactivity. The activity absorbed into the body ﬂuids and swallowed into the GI tract supplies the input data to physiologically based pharmaco*kinetic models that allow us to calculate the doses to the other organs and tissues, and to calculate the effective dose from the inhaled activity. Through the use of the respective physiologically based pharmaco*kinetic models, we can calculate the committed equivalent dose and the committed effective dose from inhalation and ingestion of 1 Bq (or 1 μCi) of every radionuclide. These calculations yield the DC for each of the radionuclides, which, when multiplied by the intake, give the estimated dose to the exposed person. DCs for all the radionuclides have been published by the U.S. EPA, the ICRP, and the IAEA. Some of these DCs are given in Table 8-20.

W

Example 8.7

A worker at a heavy-water-moderated nuclear reactor station accidentally inhaled 37 MBq (1000 μCi) 3 H as tritiated water vapor. What is his CEDE from this exposure?

RADIATION SAFETY GUIDES

395

TABLE 8-20. Dose Coefﬁcients for Selected Radionuclides RADIONUCLIDE/CLASS 3H

(water vapor)

32 P 32 P 90 Sr–90 Y/D 90 Sr–90 Y/D 137 Cs/D

(F) (F)

(F)

137 Cs 226 Ra 239 Pu/W

(M)

INTAKE ROUTE

TARGET

DC (Sv/Bq)

Inhalation Ingestion Ingestion Inhalation Inhalation Inhalation Ingestion Ingestion Inhalation

Whole body (effective) Red marrow Whole body (effective) Bone surface Whole body (effective) Whole body (effective) Whole body (effective) Bone surface Bone surface

1.73N11 8.09N9 2.37N9 7.27N7 6.47N8 8.63N9 1.35N8 6.83N6 2.11N3

Note: N11 = 10−11 . Abbreviation: DC, dose coefﬁcient. Source: Eckerman KF et al. Federal Guidance Report No. 11, 1988.

Solution CEDE = intake × DC = 3.7 × 107 Bq × 1.73 × 10−11

Sv Bq

= 6.4 × 10−4 Sv = 0.64 mSv (= 64 mrems).

Derived Air Concentration The ALI, which is a secondary standard that is based on the primary dose limit, only gives the annual intake limit; it does not deal with the rate of intake or with the atmospheric or environmental concentrations of a radionuclide that lead to the intake. It also is not amenable to direct measurement. For engineering design purposes, for control of routine operations, and for demonstration of compliance with regulations, we must know the environmental concentrations of the radionuclides with which we are dealing. To this end, the derived air concentration (DAC) is used by the U.S. NRC as a regulatory limit for airborne contaminants. The DAC is simply that average atmospheric concentration of the radionuclide that would lead to the ALI in a reference person as a consequence of exposure at the DAC for a 2000-hour working year. Since a reference worker inhales 20-L air per minute, or 2400 m3 during the 2000 hours per year spent at work, the DAC is Bq yr . DAC = m3 2400 yr ALI

(8.38)

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CHAPTER 8

Thus, for airborne the DAC is

137

Cs, whose inhalation ALI is listed in ICRP 30 as 6 × 106 Bq,

Bq Bq yr DAC = = 2.5 × 103 3 , m m3 2400 yr 6 × 106

which is rounded off to 2 × 103 Bq/m3 . According to ICRP 60 criteria, the annual dose limit is 0.02 Sv/yr. For 5-μm AMAD, class F 137 Cs particles, the DC is listed as 6.7 × 10−9 Sv/Bq, the ALI is calculated as ALI =

0.02 Sv −9

6.7 × 10

Sv Bq

= 3 × 106 Bq,

and the DAC is DAC =

Bq 3 × 106 Bq = 1.3 × 103 3 . 3 m 2400 m

Gaseous Radioactivity Immersion in a cloud of radioactive gas leads to external exposure from the activity in the surrounding air and to internal exposure due to the inhaled gas. For the case of biochemically inert gases argon, krypton, and xenon, the external submersion dose limits the atmospheric concentration, as shown by the calculations for 41 Ar in the following paragraphs. Argon-41, a biochemically inert gas, is transformed to 41 K by the emission of a 1.2-MeV beta particle and a 1.3-MeV gamma ray. The half-life of 41 Ar is 110 minutes, or 0.076 days. For the case of submersion, it is assumed that a person is exposed in an inﬁnite hemisphere of the gas. For this exposure condition, ICRP 68 lists the effective DC for 41 Ar as 5.3 × 10 −9 Sv/d/ per Bq/m3 . The reference working year is 250 days of 8 hours each. For an effective annual dose of 0.02 Sv (2 rems), the mean concentration of 41 Ar is calculated by 0.02 Sv = 5.3 × 10−9 C = 1.5 × 104

Sv/d Bq × 250 d × C 3 3 Bq/m m

(8.39)

Bq −7 μCi 4 × 10 . m3 mL

When a gas is inhaled, it may dissolve in the body ﬂuids and fat after diffusion across the capillary bed in the lung. In the case of an inert gas, absorption into the body stops after the body ﬂuids and fat are saturated with the dissolved gas. The saturation quantity of dissolved 41 Ar in the body ﬂuids due to inhalation of contaminated air at the DAC, based on submersion, must be calculated in order to determine the internal dose. The ﬁrst step in this calculation is the determi-

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397

nation of the molar concentration of 41 Ar that corresponds to 1.5 × 104 Bq/m3 (4 × 10 −7 μCi/mL). The speciﬁc activity of 41 Ar is calculated with Eq. (4.30): SAi = 3.7 × 10

10

⎛ ⎜ = 3.7 × 1010 ⎜ ⎝

ARa × TRa Ai × Ti

Bq g

226 × 1.6 × 103 years × 365 41 × 0.076 days

⎞ d yr ⎟ ⎟ = 1.57 × 1018 Bq , ⎠ g

and the molar concentration of the 41 Ar is calculated as Bq 41 m3 × 1 mol = 2.33 × 10−16 mol Ar . Bq 41 g m3 1.57 × 1018 g 1.5 × 104

The molar concentration of air at standard temperature and pressure is mol air 1 mol . = 44.6 3 m3 L m 22.4 × 10−3 mol L Since argon constitutes 0.94 volume percent of the air, the molar concentration of naturally occurring argon in the air is 9.4 × 10−3

mol air mol Ar mol Ar × 44.6 3 = 0.42 3 . mol air m air m air

The amount of argon corresponding to the 41 Ar DAC based on submersion dose is thus seen to be insigniﬁcant relative to the argon already in the air. The molar concentration of argon in the air may therefore be assumed to be unchanged by the addition of 1.5 × 104 Bq/m3 (4 × 10−7 μCi/mL) 41 Ar to the air. With this amount of 41 Ar in the air, the speciﬁc activity of the argon in the air is Bq Ci m3 = 3.57 × 104 Bq 9.65 × 10−7 . Ar mol Ar mol Ar 0.42 mol 3 m

1.5 × 104

Now we will calculate the concentration of argon in the body ﬂuids when the dissolved argon is in equilibrium with the argon in the air. According to Henry’s law, the amount of a gas dissolved in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid: Pgas = K N = K

ng , ng + ns

(8.40)

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CHAPTER 8

TABLE 8-21. Solubility of Several Gases in Water at 38◦ C GAS

K (× 107 )

H2 He N2 O2 Ar Ne Kr Xe Rn CO2 C2 H2 C2 H4 N2 O

5.72 11.0 7.51 4.04 3.41 9.76 2.13 1.12 0.65 0.168 0.131 1.21 0.242

partial pressure of gas in mm Hg Note: K = mole fraction of gas in solution .

where Pgas K N ng ns

= partial pressure of the gas, = Henry’s law constant, = mole fraction of the dissolved gas, = molar concentration of the dissolved gas, and = molar concentration of the solvent.

The solubilities of several gases in water at 38◦ C, expressed in terms of Henry’s law constant, are given in Table 8-21. At body temperature, K for argon is 3.41 × 107 , and the partial pressure of argon in the atmosphere is PAr = 0.0094 × 760 = 7.15 mm Hg. The total body water in a 70-kg reference person is 43 L. Therefore, the molar concentration of water, the solvent in Eq. (8.40), is ng =

1000 g/L mol = 55.6 . 18 g/mol L

Equation (8.40) may now be solved for the concentration of dissolved argon. ng 7.15 = 3.41 × 107 ng + 55.6 ng = 1.17 × 10−5

mol . L

Since the speciﬁc activity of the dissolved argon is 3.57 × 104 Bq/mol (9.65 × 10−7 Ci/mol), the argon activity concentration in the body ﬂuids is Bq 4 Bq −5 mol −5 μCi × 1.17 × 10 = 0.42 1.1 × 10 , 3.57 × 10 mol L L L

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399

and the total activity in the body ﬂuids is 43 L × 0.42

Bq = 18.1 Bq(4.9 × 10−4 μCi). L

Argon is more soluble in fat than in water. At equilibrium, the partition coefﬁcient, which is the concentration ratio of argon in fat to argon in water, is 5.4:1 at body temperature. The amount of argon in the 10 kg of fat in the reference worker is 5.4 × 0.42

Bq × 10 kg = 22.7 Bq(6.1 × 10−4 μCi). kg

The total argon activity in the reference person is the sum of the argon in the body ﬂuids and in the fat: Total body burden of41 Ar = 18.1 Bq + 22.7 Bq = 40.8 Bq(= 1.1 × 10−3 μCi). If the argon is assumed to be uniformly distributed throughout the body, then the whole body dose from the absorbed 41 A is calculated from D˙ (body ← body) q Bq × 1 =

Sv tps MeV J s × Ea × 1.6 × 10−13 × 3.6 × 103 × 1 . Bq t MeV h Gy J/kg 70 kg × 1 Gy

(8.41)

If we substitute q = 40.8 Bq MeV 1 MeV MeV + × 1.2 = 0.4 E a = ϕ × E γ + E¯ β = 4.53 × 10−6 × 1.3 t 3 t t into Eq. (8.41), we ﬁnd Sv D˙ (body ← body) = 1.3 × 10−10 h

or

2.6 × 10−7

Sv . yr

The lungs are also irradiated by the 41 Ar within the airways, whose volume (according to ICRP 68) is 3.862 L. Since the air concentration is 15 Bq/L, there are 57.9 Bq in the air inside the lungs. This leads to a dose rate of 2.7 × 10−5 Sv/yr. The effective annual dose due to inhaling 41 Ar at the concentration based on the submersion dose is H= w T HT . Substituting the appropriate weighting factors, we have H = 0.12 × 2.7 × 10−5 + 0.88 × 2.6 × 10−7 = 3.5 × 10−6 Sv. The inhalation dose due to an atmosphere containing the limiting concentration for submersion is thus seen to be very much less than the submersion dose. The submersion dose is therefore the limiting dose. The same thing is true for the radioisotopes of krypton and xenon. For these radionuclides, therefore, the limiting atmospheric concentrations are based on the submersion dose.

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Ingestion

Stomach (ST) λST Small Intestine (SI)

λB

Body fluids

λSI Upper Large Intestine (ULI) λULI Lower Large Intestine (LLI) λLLI Excretion

Section of GI Tract

Mass of Walls (g)

Mass of Contents (g)

Mean Residence Time (d)

Stomach (ST) Small Intestine (SI) Upper Large Intestine (ULI) Lower Large Intestine (LLI)

150 640 210 160

250 400 220 135

1/24 4/24 13/24 24/24

λ (d−1) 24 6 1.8 1

Figure 8-19. Dosimetric model of the gastrointestinal tract. The clearance rate for transfer from the small intestine into the body ﬂuids is given by Eq. (8.42). (Reproduced with permission from ICRP Publication 30, Part 1: Limits for Intakes of Radionuclides by Workers. Ann ICRP. 1979; 2(3/4):33. c 1979 International Commission on Radiological Protection.) Copyright

Gastrointestinal Tract In cases of ingested radionuclides or radionuclides transferred to the GI tract from the lungs, and especially for those nuclides that are poorly absorbed from the GI tract, the GI tract or portions of it may be the tissue or organ that receives the greatest dose. The dose to the GI tract is calculated on the basis of the four-compartment dosimetric model shown in Figure 8-19. According to this model, the radionuclide enters the stomach (ST) and then passes sequentially through the small intestine (SI), from which most absorption into the body ﬂuids occurs. It then passes through the upper large intestine (ULI) and the lower large intestine (LLI). Finally, the remaining activity is excreted in the feces. The clearance rate for transfer from the small intestine into the body ﬂuids is given by λB =

f 1 λSI , 1 − f1

(8.42)

where f1 = fraction of the stable element reaching the body ﬂuids after ingestion. In making dose calculations for the purpose of calculating a DC and an ALI, we assume the radionuclide to be uniformly distributed throughout the contents of the respective segments of the GI tract and the weight of the contents of each

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401

segment to be as listed in Figure 8-19. Furthermore, the movement of the contents between compartments is assumed to follow ﬁrst-order kinetics, with compartmental clearance rates as shown in Figure 8-19. The time rate of change of the contents of each of the four compartments can be calculated on the basis of mass balance. The increase or decrease in the quantity of radionuclide in any of the compartments is simply equal to the difference between what goes in and what goes out: Rate of change of contents = rate in − rate out.

(8.43)

If we have a constant input rate, I˙ per day, as in the case of continuous ingestion of radioactivity in food or continuous inhalation of a radioactive aerosol that is cleared from the lung into the GI tract, then the mass balance equation for the stomach becomes dq = I˙ − λSt q St − λR q St , (8.44) dt St where q may be measured either in SI units or in traditional units and λ is the turnover rate per day. When the amount of activity entering into the stomach is equal to the amount leaving, we have a steady-state condition, and (dq/dt)ST becomes equal to zero. Under this condition, Eq. (8.44) becomes I˙ = λSt q St + λR q St .

(8.45)

The stomach contents empty into the small intestine, whose kinetics are similar to those of the stomach. The time rate of change of the contents, therefore, is described by the difference between what enters from the stomach and what leaves the small intestine. Material is cleared from the small intestine by two pathways: 1. by peristalsis into the upper large intestine, and 2. by molecular diffusion into the blood vessels in the inner surface of the small intestine. The difference between what goes into the small intestine and what leaves it is expressed mathematically by dq = λSt q St − λSI q SI − λR q SI − λB q SI , (8.46) dt SI where λ B is the transfer rate of the radionuclide from the small intestine into the blood and is given by Eq. (8.42). The dosimetric model of the GI tract assumes that only water is absorbed into the bloodstream from the large intestine. The rate of change of the radioactivity in the upper large intestine, therefore, is given by dq = λSI q SI − λULI q ULI − λR q ULI , (8.47) dt ULI and for the lower large intestine, from which the radioactivity leaves the body, we have dq = λULI q ULI − λLLI q LLI − λR q LLI . (8.48) dt LLI

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With the aid of Eqs. (8.44) to (8.48) and the appropriate speciﬁc AFs, we can calculate the dose per unit intake of radioactivity to the walls of the GI tract and to other organs and tissues for steady-state conditions and thus can compute the intake that will result in the dose limit, the ALI.

Dosimetric Model for Bone ICRP 2 Methodology To gain an insight into the evolution of safety standards for bone seekers, it is instructive to examine the ICRP 2 recommendations for intake limits, which were based on the critical organ concept. That is, on the organ that received the greatest dose from the intake of a radionuclide. For bone-seeking radionuclides, the intake limits were based on the application of a simple dosimetric model to data derived mainly from humans. The skeleton was treated as though it were a single tissue that weighed 7 kg. Because we had a great deal of experience with human exposure to radium and because radium is a “bone seeker”—that is, it is deposited in the bone—the maximum permissible body burdens of all bone seekers were established by comparing the dose equivalent of the bone seeker with that delivered to the bone by radium. On the basis of data on humans, 0.1 μg radium, corresponding to 3.7 kBq, in equilibrium with its decay products, was recommended as the maximum permissible body burden of 226 Ra. Using the then quality factor of 10 for alpha particles, the calculated dose equivalent to the bone from 0.1 μg 226 Ra and its daughters was 0.56 rem (5.6 mSv) per week. Radium is deposited relatively uniformly in the bone. Other bone seekers, however, were found to be deposited in a patchy, nonuniform manner that results in doses to some parts of the bone as much as ﬁve times greater than the average bone dose. For this reason, the ICRP introduced the relative damage factor, N, as a multiplier of the quality factor QF. This factor has a value of 5 for all corpuscular (alpha or beta) radiation except for those cases where the corpuscular radiations are due to a chain whose ﬁrst member is radium. When radium is the ﬁrst member of the chain, then N = 1, since the distribution of the radioisotope will be determined by the radium. For example, the value of the relative damage factor N for 228

β

α

Th−→224 Ra−→

is 5 for each particle, while the same particles are weighted with a relative damage factor of 1 in the chain 228

β

β

β

α

Ra−→228 Ac−→228 Th−→224 Ra−→.

The energy dissipated in the bone by 226 Ra and the daughters that remain in the bone is 11 MeV per transformation. Applying the QF value of 10 brings the effective energy to 110 MeV per transformation. Since 99% of the radium body burden is in the skeleton, ICRP 2, using data on humans as a basis, calculated a maximum permissible body burden of any other bone seeker: MeV 3.7 × 103 Bq × 0.99 110 t 4 × 105 q = × = Bq, MeV f2 f2 E E t

(8.49)

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RADIATION SAFETY GUIDES

where E is the effective corpuscular energy per transformation of any other bone seeker and f 2 is the fraction of the total body burden of the bone seeker that is in the skeleton. For the case of 90 Sr, for example, we have Sr-90 Y are pure beta emitters whose average energy is 0.194 MeV (90 Sr) + 0.93 MeV (90 Y) = 1.12 MeV/transformation Q (quality factor) = 1, N = 5, and f 2 = 0.99.

90

The effective energy is 5 ×1.12 = 5.6 MeV per transformation. From Eq. (8.49) we ﬁnd the maximum permissible body burden to be q =

4 × 105 = 7.2 × 104 Bq (2 μCi) 0.99 × 5.6

The effective half-life for 90 Sr in the skeleton is found in ICRP 2 to be 6400 days, which corresponds to an effective clearance rate, λE = 1.08 × 10−4 per day. Since 9% of the ingested Sr is deposited in the bone, the maximum permissible concentration in drinking water that will maintain the body burden at 7.2 × 104 Bq (2 μCi) is found through the use of activity-balance calculations. If we assume that the drinking water is the only source of intake of 90 Sr and that the 90 Sr containing water is the person’s sole source of water, then we can calculate the concentration of radiostrontium in the water that would lead to a steady-state 90 Sr activity of 2 μCi. Under steady-state conditions, activity deposited = activity eliminated,

(8.50a)

that is, C

μCi mL × 2.2 × 103 × f = λE d−1 × q μCi. mL d

(8.50b)

In SI units, Eq. (8.50b) becomes C

Bq mL × 2.2 × 103 × f = λE d−1 × q Bq, mL d

(8.50c)

where C = maximum permissible concentration (MPC, which was an ICRP 2 concept), f = fraction of the intake that is deposited in the critical organ, λE = effective elimination rate constant, and q = steady-state activity in the critical organ. Substituting the appropriate values into Eq. (8.50b) and solving for C yields C =

1.08 × 10−4 d−1 × 2 μCi μCi = 1 × 10−6 L mL 2.2 × 103 × 9 × 10−2 d

3.7 × 10−2

Bq . mL

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CHAPTER 8

Figure 8-20. Buildup of a radioisotope in the body resulting from continuous intake.

Ingestion of water at the rate assumed in the calculation above will result in the maximum permissible body burden when equilibrium is attained (Fig. 8-20). Because of the very long effective half-life of 90 Sr in the bone, the maximum allowable body burden is not attained during the 50-year occupational exposure time assumed for the purpose of computing values for the radiation safety guide. After 50 years of continuous ingestion at the above rate, the amount of 90 Sr in the skeleton will be q = q equil. (1 − e −λE t ) q = 2 μCi(1 − e−1.08×10 q = 1.7 μCi

−4

×50×365)

)

(6.2 × 104 Bq),

or only 86% of the maximum body burden. It is thus clear that the average body burden, and consequently the average dose rate to the skeleton during a 50-year period of maximum permissible ingestion, will be considerably less than the maximum permissible body burden. The mean body burden during a period of ingestion, T, starting at time zero when there is no radioisotope of the species in question in the body, and assuming the effective elimination rate for the radioisotope to be λE , is given by 1 q¯ = T

T

q equil. (1 − e −λE t )dt.

(8.51)

Integrating Eq. (8.51), we obtain ! q¯ = q equil.

" 1 −λE T (e 1+ − 1) . λE T

(8.52)

For 90 Sr, whose λE = 0.0395 yr−1 , we have for a 50-year exposure period q¯ = 1.13 μCi

(4.18 × 104 Bq).

Several other radionuclides (Table 8-22) do not attain their equilibrium values in the body during 50 years of continuous ingestion at the maximum recommended concentrations.

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405

TABLE 8-22. Radioisotopes That Do Not Reach Equilibrium in 50 Years Z 38 88 89 90 90 91 93 94 94 94 94 94 95 95 96 96 96 96 98 98

ISOTOPE

T E (yrs)

% EQUILIBRIUM AFTER 50 YRS

90 Sr

18 44 20 200 200 200 200 62 200 190 12 200 140 200 30 17 200 190 140 10

86 56 83 16 16 16 16 43 16 16 94 16 22 16 69 87 16 16 22 97

226 Ra 227 Ac 230 Th 232 Th 231 Pa 237 Np 238 Pu 239 Pu 240 Pu 241 Pu 242 Pu 241 Am 243 Am 243 Cm 244 Cm 245 Cm 246 Cm 249 Cf 250 Cf

ICRP 30 Dosimetric Model While the ICRP 2 recommendations were based on a dosimetric model that considered the “bone” as a single tissue consisting of a hom*ogeneous mixture of its chemical compounds, the ICRP 30 dosimetric model considers the various different tissues within the bone that are at risk. Bone is modeled as three separate tissues:

r Cortical (or compact) bone, which is the hard outer portion of the bone, is r r

assigned a mass of 4 kg in the ICRP 30 model. (ICRP 89 lists the masses of the skeleton’s components according to sex and age.) Trabecular bone, which is the soft spongy inside the cortical bone, is assigned a mass of 1 kg in the ICRP 30 model. Red (or active) marrow, which is located in the spaces within the trabecular bone, has an assigned mass of 1.5 kg.

The most radiosensitive tissues are the 120 g of endosteum that lie within the ﬁrst 10 μm of the adjacent bone surfaces and the 1.5 kg of red bone marrow. Since the AF of the energy emitted by radionuclides within the bone depends on where the radionuclides are deposited, the newer bone model classiﬁes the bone-seeking radionuclides as volume seekers and surface seekers. Whether any speciﬁc radionuclide is a volume or surface seeker is determined by the metabolism of the element. In this regard, the ICRP 30 dosimetric model established two general categories: 1. Isotopes of the alkaline earth elements whose half-lives exceed 15 days are assumed to be uniformly distributed throughout the volume of the bone. 2. Shorter-lived radionuclides are assumed to be distributed on the bone surfaces, since they are unlikely to have distributed themselves within the bone volume before they decay.

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For dosimetric purposes, six nonexclusive categories of bone seekers are used in the ICRP 30 bone model: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

photon emitters, alpha-emitting volume seekers, alpha-emitting surface seekers, beta-emitting surface seekers whose mean beta energy is at least 0.2 MeV, beta-emitting surface seekers whose mean beta energy is less than 0.2 MeV, and beta-emitting volume seekers.

These categories are not mutually exclusive because a radionuclide, such as a beta– gamma emitter, belongs in two categories. In this case, each different type of radiation is considered separately. The AF for the various particle emitters are given in Table 8-23. The AFs for photons are given in Appendix D. Using the physiologically based biokinetic model for a bone-seeking radionuclide, we can calculate the dose to the bone or bone surface and the doses to the other organs and tissues due to the intake, by ingestion or inhalation, of 1 Bq or 1 μCi of activity. Then, using either the ICRP and IAEA criterion of 0.02-Sv effective dose limit, or U.S. NRC criterion of 5-rems (0.05-Sv) effective dose limit or 50-rems (0.5-Sv) organ dose limit, or we can calculate the secondary ALI and the tertiary DAC or maximum concentration in water. If we were to use the ICRP criterion of a mean annual effective dose of 0.02 Sv and the DC of 2.4 × 10−9 Sv/Bq for 5-μm moderately soluble 45 Ca particles, then the inhalation ALI would be ALI(effective) =

0.02 Sv 2.4 × 10

−9

Sv Bq

= 8.33 × 106 Bq = 225 μCi.

For example, the U S NRC’s inhalation ALI for soluble (class D) 90 Sr, using the DCs for the bone surface and for whole-body effective dose listed in Table 8-20, we have ALI(bone surface) =

ALI(effective) =

0.5 Sv 7.29 ×

10−7

0.05 Sv 6.47 × 10−8

Sv Bq

Sv Bq

= 6.86 × 105 Bq = 1.86 × 101 μCi

= 7.73 × 105 Bq = 2.09 × 101 μCi.

TABLE 8-23. Recommended Absorbed Fractions for Dosimetry of Radionuclides in Bone SOURCE

TARGET

A, Vol.

α, BS

β, Vol.

β, E¯ ≥ 0.2 MeV, BS

β, E¯ < 0.2 MeV, BS

Trabecular Cortical Trabecular Cortical

Surface (BS) Surface Red Marrow Red Marrow

0.025 0.01 0.05 0.0

0.25 0.25 0.5 0.0

0.025 0.015 0.35 0.0

0.025 0.015 0.5 0.0

0.25 0.25 0.5 0.0

Abbreviation: BS, bone surface. Reproduced with permission from ICRP Publication 30, Part 1: Limits for Intakes of Radionuclides by Workers. Ann ICRP. c 1979 International Commission on Radiological Protection. 1979; 2(3/4):42. Copyright

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The smaller of the two ALIs is designated as the limit, and thus the dose to the bone surface is the limiting dose. Since the limits are rounded to one signiﬁcant ﬁgure, the ALI for inhalation of 1-μm, class D 90 Sr particles is listed in 10 CFR 20 as 2 × 101 , and would be applicable to both stochastic and nonstochastic cases. However, 10 CFR 20, Table 1 notes that the dose to the bone surface is the deciding criterion.

UNITED STATES NUCLEAR REGULATORY PROGRAM National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements The ICRP is not a regulatory agency. It is a scientiﬁc body that makes recommendations for radiation safety standards. In accordance with the policy laid down by the ICRP, its recommendations are adapted to the needs and conditions in the various countries by national bodies. In the United States, this function is served by the NCRP. This organization, which was originally known as the Advisory Committee on X-ray and Radium Protection (founded in 1929), consists of a group of technical experts who are specialists in radiation safety and scientists who are experts in the disciplines that form the basis for radiation safety. The concern of the NCRP is only with the scientiﬁc and technical aspects of radiation safety. To accomplish its objectives, the NCRP is organized into a main council, whose members are selected on the basis of their scientiﬁc expertise, and a number of subcommittees. Each of the subcommittees is responsible for preparing speciﬁc recommendations in its ﬁeld of competence. The recommendations of the subcommittees require approval of the council before they are published. Finally, the approved recommendations are published by the council, with titles such as Report No. 147, Structural Shielding Design for Medical X-Ray Imaging Facilities. It should be emphasized that the NCRP is not an ofﬁcial government agency, although its recommendations are very seriously considered by regulatory agencies.

Atomic Energy Commission In the United States, regulatory responsibility for radiation safety in the nuclear energy program originally was given by the U.S. Congress to the United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) through the enactment of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 and the Atomic Energy Act Amendments of 1954. The AEC continued to function until 1974, when its responsibilities were divided between two other agencies. The Atomic Energy Acts of 1946 and 1954 regulated the possession, use, and production of the following: Source materials—Uranium and thorium, and their ores containing ≥0.05% U or Th, Special nuclear materials (SNM)—Plutonium, 233 U, and uranium enriched in either 233 U or 235 U, By-product material—Originally deﬁned by the USAEC as “any material, except SNM, produced or made radioactive incident to making or using SNM.” The Energy Policy Act of 2005 expanded the deﬁnition of “by-product material” to include certain discrete sources of radium, certain accelerator-produced radioactive material, and certain discrete sources of naturally occurring r adioactive material (NORM), and other radioactive material that the AEC’s successor, the NRC, determines could pose a threat to public health and safety or the common defense and security.

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Previously, these materials, as well as U or Th in concentrations 10 MeV, interact with matter, such as collimaters, shielding, etc. Thus, when discussing shielding of high-energy machines, we have two categories: a. ≤ 10MeV, where we do not have neutrons because the threshold energy for photoneutron production is about 8.5 MeV for most materials, and the cross section remains very small until the quantum energy exceeds 10 MeV. b. >10 MeV, where we have neutrons that contribute signiﬁcantly to the radiation dose, and which, therefore, must be shielded. 2. Because of the presence of photoneutrons, safety criteria are expressed in Sv rather than Gy. 3. Speciﬁcation of the workload—For diagnostic X-ray machines, the workload is speciﬁed in milliamp-minutes per week at a given kVp. For therapeutic facilities, 3

Methe, Brian M. Oper Rad Saf, S83-S88, May, 2003. This introduction to radiotherapy machine shielding design is based on NCRP Report 151, Structural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Megavoltage X- and Gamma Ray Radio Therapy Facilities. Complete detailed information can be found in NCRP 151.

4

558

CHAPTER 10

the workload is speciﬁed as the weekly dose at the gantry isocenter, usually at a distance of 1 m from the X-ray source, in Gy per week. 4. An additional safety requirement that the dose-equivalent in any unrestricted area be ≤0.02 mSv (2 mrems) in any 1-hour period. This additional requirement is called the time averaged dose-equivalent rate (TADR), and is 1-hour dose averaged over a period of 1 week. The weekly TADR, RW for a dose point behind a primary barrier is given by RW =

IDR Sv/h × Wpri Gy/wk × U pri , D˙ O Gy/h

(10.28)

where IDR = instantaneous dose-equivalent rate, Sv/h, measured as the design dose point, ˙ D O = maximum absorbed dose output rate at 1 m, Gy/h,

Figure 10-20. Simpliﬁed schematic of a typical high-energy treatment room. All barriers are constructed of standard concrete (147 lb ft−3 ). (Reproduced with permission from McGinley PH. Shielding Techniques for Radiation Oncology Facilities. 2nd ed. Madison, WI: Medical Physics Publishing Corp; 2002:Fig 2-1, pg 10.)

EXTERNAL RADIATION SAFETY

559

Wpri = primary barrier weekly workload, Gy/wk, and U pri = use factor for that dose point. A generic layout of a typical high-energy treatment room is shown in Figure 10-20.

W

Example 10.10

Calculate the primary concrete barrier thickness for a 6-MV linear accelerator, given the following operational data:

r 40 patients per day, 5 days per week, r 3.5 Gy per patient, r 5000 Gy per year for calibration, quality assurance measurements, and mainte-

r r r r r r r r r

nance, annual workload, measured at 1 m = 3.5 Gy/patient × 40 patient/d × 5 d/wk × 52 wk/yr + 5000 Gy/yr = 41, 400 Gy/yr, weekly workload, W = 41, 400 ÷ 52 ≈ 800 Gy/wk, D˙ 0 = 10 Gy/min at 1 m = maximum output from the accelerator, dpri = 6.3 m from isocenter to dose point, dsca = 1 m = distance from X-ray source to isocenter (scattering point), dsec = 6.3 m = distance from scattering point to dose point, dL = 6.4 m = leakage distance from X-ray source to dose point, maximum ﬁeld size at isocenter = 40 cm × 40 cm, design dose point is in the corridor, occupancy factor T = 1/5, use factor U = 0.5, P = 20 × 10−6 Sv/wk (0.02 mSv/wk) .

Solution The transmission of the primary barrier is given by

Bpri

Bpri

dpri 2 Gy P × wk d1 = Gy W ×U ×T wk 6.3 m 2 −6 Sv × 20 × 10 wk 1m = 9.92 × 10−6 . = Sv × 0.5 × 0.2 800 wk

(10.29)

The number of tenth value layers (TVLs) necessary to accomplish this degree of attenuation is calculated from n = log

1 Bpri

n = log

1 = 5.0. 9.92 × 10−6

(10.30)

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CHAPTER 10

Table 10-7 lists the ﬁrst TVL, TVL1 , and the equilibrium TVL, TVLe , for concrete, steel, and lead for various primary-beam quantum energies. The TVL1 differs from TVLe in order to account for changes in the spectral distribution of the radiation as it penetrates the shielding barrier. In Table 10-7, we ﬁnd TVL1 to be 37-cm concrete, and TVLe to be 33-cm concrete. The required thickness of concrete is t barrier = TVL1 + (n − 1)TVLe

(10.31)

t barrier = 37 cm + (5.0 − 1) × 33 cm = 169 cm(66.5 in.) Now we must see whether this barrier thickness meets the TADR limit of 20 × 10−6 Sv in 1 week (2 mrems in 1 week). The maximum IDR at the dose point, with the calculated transmission factor of 7.2 × 10−6 is calculated as follows: Sv × 9.92 × 10−6 × (1m)2 600 Sv h = 1.5 × 10−4 . IDR = h (6.3 m)2 When we substitute this value into Eq. (10.28), we have Gy Sv × Wpri × U pri h wk RW = Gy D˙ 0 h Gy −4 Sv × 800 × 0.5 1.5 × 10 h wk = Gy 600 h Sv −6 Sv = 100 μ . = 100 × 10 wk wk IDR

This TADR is ﬁve times greater than the required value of 20 μSv/wk. Increasing the thickness of the concrete barrier by 3 HVLs (1 TVL = 3.3 HVL) would decrease the TADR to 12.5 μSv/wk, which is reasonably conservative and would allow for an increased utilization of the facility. If we choose to do this, then the barrier thickness would be 33 cm t barrier = 165 cm + 3 HVL × TVL = 195 cm. 3.3 HVL TVL Since the primary barrier is much thicker than the other walls, which shield the secondary (scatter and leakage) radiation, the width of the primary barrier is usually restricted to one that is functionally effective. Good design practice speciﬁes that the width of the primary barrier must be greater by at least 30.5 cm (1 ft.) on each side of the maximum-sized projection of the primary beam on the barrier (Fig. 10-21). That is, its width is 61 cm (2 ft.) greater than the projection of the primary beam at its greatest possible size. The widest possible beam projection occurs when the collimator is rotated by 45◦ . Since the diagonal of a square is equal to 1.414 × length of the side, and the length of the projected side is given by s 1 cm s 2 cm = , d1 d2

EXTERNAL RADIATION SAFETY

561

Figure 10-21. Widths of primary barriers. The lower ﬁgure shows a metal slab that is embedded in the concrete to provide the additional shielding for the primary beam. (Reproduced with permission from McGinley PH. Shielding Techniques for Radiation Oncology Facilities. 2nd ed. Madison, WI: Medical Physics Publishing Corp; 2002:Fig 2-3, pg 27.)

where s 1 = length of side at distance d1 from the X-Ray target and s 2 = length of projected side at a distance of d2 from the X-Ray target. The width of the projected beam on the primary barrier wall is w (projected beam) = 1.414 × s 1 ×

d2 . d1

(10.32)

For this example: s 1 = 40 cm, d2 = 7.3 m – 0.3 m – 1.95 m = 5.05 m, and d1 = 1 m. The width of the primary barrier, therefore, is w (primary barrier) = 1.414 × 40 cm ×

5.05 m + 61 cm = 347 cm. 1m

562

CHAPTER 10

W

Example 10.11

Calculate the secondary concrete barrier thickness for the wall that separates the therapy room in Example 10.10 from a laboratory, given the following additional information:

r P = 20 × 10−6 Sv/wk (0.02 mSv/wk), since the laboratory is not controlled,

r dsec , dose control point, is equidistant from the X-ray target in the accelerator head and the patient scattering position at the isocenter, dsec = 7.1 m,

r mean treatment ﬁeld size, F , = 225 cm2 , r dose point in the adjacent laboratory is directly opposite the isocenter, and r T = occupancy factor = 1. Solution The origin of most secondary radiation from accelerators whose photon energy ≤10 MeV is radiation scattered by the patient and leakage radiation from the accelerator head. When designing the secondary barrier, only radiation scattered from materials in the primary beam is considered. Scattered radiation intensity depends on the scattering angle, on the energy of the primary beam, and on the scattering area (ﬁeld size). Table 10-8 lists the intensity ratio, at a scattering angle of 90◦ , of the scattered-to-incident radiation at a distance of 1 m from the scatterer for a ﬁeld size (scattering area) of 400 cm2 . On the assumption that the intensity of the scattered radiation varies inversely with the square of the distance from the scatterer and varies directly with the scattering area, the exposure from the scattered radiation, the maximum barrier transmission for radiation scattered by the patient is given in NCRP 147 as Bps =

P 400 2 2 × dsec × × dsca αW T F

(10.33)

where P = shielding design goal, usually expressed as Sv or mSv per week, α = fraction of the absorbed dose in the primary beam that is scattered by the patient through a given angle; in shielding design, scatter through 90◦ is considered appropriate, TABLE 10-8. 90◦ Scatter Fraction (α) at 1 m From a Human-Sized Phantom, Target-to-Phantom Distance of 1 m, and Field Size of 400 cm2 ACCELERATOR VOLTAGE (MV) → 6 10 18 24 α → 4.26 × 10−4 3.81 × 10−4 1.89 × 10−4 1.74 × 10−4 Abstracted from Structural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Megavoltage X- and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy Facilities. Bethesda, MD: National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurement; 2005. NCRP Report 151.

EXTERNAL RADIATION SAFETY

W = workload, Gy/wk, T = occupancy factor, and F = actual cross-sectional area of the beam at 1 meter, cm2 . The barrier transmission factor for leakage radiation is given in NCRP 147 as BL =

1000 × P × dL2 . W ×T

The factor of 1000 accounts for the fact that leakage radiation at a distance of 1 m from the target may not exceed 0.1% of the workload. The scattered radiation barrier transmission is found by substituting the appropriate values into Eq. (10.33). The value of α for 90◦ scatter is found in Table 10-8. Bps =

P 400 2 2 × dsec × × dsca αW T F

Sv 400 cm2 wk × (1 m)2 × (6.3 m)2 × Bps = = 4.1 × 10−3 . 2 Gy 225 cm 4.26 × 10−4 × 800 ×1 wk 20 × 10−6

The number of TVLs to attain this degree of attenuation is n = log

1 1 = log = 2.4. Bps 4.1 × 10−3

The required maximum transmission of leakage radiation is calculated by substituting the appropriate values in Eq. (10.33): Gy × (6.3 m)2 1000 × 20 × 10−6 1000 × P × dL2 wk = 9.9 × 10−4 . BL = = Gy W ×T 800 wk The number to TVLs required to reach 9.9 × 10−4 is n = log

1 1 = log = 3. BL 9.9 × 10−4

According to the recommended design practice, when the two calculated barrier thicknesses are close together, as in this case, we add 1 HVL to the thicker barrier. If the two barrier thicknesses differ by a TVL or more, we simply use the thicker barrier. In this example, the barrier thickness for the leakage radiation is not much greater than that for the scattered radiation. We therefore add 1 HVL to the thicker barrier. In Table 10-9, we ﬁnd TLV1 and the TLVe for 6-MV X-rays to be 34and 29-cm concrete respectively. Since 3.3 HVL = 1 TVL, the required barrier thickness is tsecondary = 34 cm + (3 − 1) × 29 cm +

29 cm = 101 cm. 3.3

563

564

CHAPTER 10

TABLE 10-9. Tenth Value Layers (TVLs) of Concrete for Leakage Radiation ACCELERATOR VOLTAGE (MV) 4 6 10 15 18 20 25 30 60 Co

TVL1 (cm)

TVLe(cm)

33 34 35 36 36 36 37 37 21

28 29 31 33 34 34 35 36 21

Reproduced with permission of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements from Structural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Megavoltage X- and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy Facilities. Bethesda, MD: National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurement; 2005. NCRP Report 151.

As shown in the example above, even the secondary barrier is very thick, usually on the order of 1–1.25 m (3–4 ft.) concrete. To shield the entrance doorway into the treatment room would require a massive amount of lead, the exact thickness would depend on the distance of the doorway from the accelerator head. To reduce the shield thickness at the door, megavoltage therapy rooms are designed in the form of a maze (Fig. 10-20). The maze wall is a barrier that reduces the patient-scattered radiation and the leakage radiation at the door to a manageable level. To reach the door, the patient-scattered radiation must again be scattered through a large angle, thereby greatly decreasing the energy of the scattered photons and making it easier to shield the radiation at the door. Details for the design of a maze may be found in NCRP 151.

Neutron Production Except for the 9 Be(γ , n)8 Be reaction whose gamma threshold energy is 1.666 MeV, all other thresholds for photoneutron production are about 8.5 MeV, and production becomes signiﬁcant at quantum energies greater than 10 MeV. The neutron energy spectrum is almost independent of the photon energy at these energies, and the average neutron energy is about 1–2 MeV, depending on the exact photodisintegration reaction. The energy spectrum of the neutrons is important to the health physicist because the response of the neutron survey meter may depend on energy of the neutrons. Most neutron-surveying instruments are calibrated with one of the following three sources:

r Pu–Be, whose average neutron energy = 4.2 MeV, r Am–Be, whose average neutron energy = 4.5 MeV, or r 252 Cf, whose ﬁssion neutron spectrum is similar to the spectral distribution of the photoneutrons, and whose average neutron energy, 2.2 MeV, is not far from that of the photoneutrons. Photoneutron production is important in shielding design for three reasons:

r Neutrons add to the X-ray dose, and must be accounted for in the shield design. r The neutrons may be absorbed by material in the environment and make the absorbing atoms radioactive, thus leaving radioactivity and a radiation ﬁeld after the machine is turned off.

565

EXTERNAL RADIATION SAFETY

r Gamma rays (capture gammas) are almost always produced in the neutron absorption reactions. The average energy of capture gammas in concrete is 3.6 MeV. Shielding design of high-energy radiotherapy facilities is based on well-known principles of bremsstrahlung production, interaction of photons with matter, neutron production, and neutron interactions, including absorption and activation. However, the application of these principles to the design of a particular facility is a very complex undertaking. Detailed application of these principles may be found in several applied publications, such as NCRP 144, NCRP 147, and NCRP 151. The complexity of shielding design for high-energy radiation therapy facilities makes shielding design an ideal candidate for computerization, and numerous computer codes may be found in the literature.

Airborne Contaminant Production Interaction of energy by the atmosphere from environmental radiation ﬁelds can lead to radiolytic dissociation of oxygen and nitrogen molecules in the air. The resulting disrupted molecules can recombine to form ozone, nitrogen oxide, and nitrogen dioxide. Ozone, whose OSHA permissible exposure level (PEL) is 0.1 parts per million (ppm), and nitrogen dioxide, whose PEL is 5 ppm, are of concern because of their relatively high toxicity. Neutrons can interact with the 40Ar constituent in ordinary air to produce 110-minute half-lived 41Ar, and with atmospheric dusts to produce airborne radioactive particles. According to NCRP 147, ventilation of a normal clinical treatment room at a rate of three air changes per hour is sufﬁcient for health protection.

Beta Shielding Two factors must be considered in designing a shield against high-intensity radiation—namely, the beta particles and the bremsstrahlung that are generated due to absorption in the source itself and in the shield. Because of these factors, the beta shield consists of a low-atomic-numbered substance (to minimize the production of bremsstrahlung) sufﬁciently thick to stop all the betas, followed by a high-atomic-numbered material thick enough to attenuate the bremsstrahlung intensity to an acceptable level. TABLE 10-10. Tenth Value Layers (TVLs) of Concrete for Patient-Scattered Radiation at 90◦ Scattering Angle ACCELERATOR VOLTAGE (MV)

TVL (cm)

4 6 10

17 17 18

Reproduced with permission of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements from Structural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Megavoltage X- and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy Facilities. Bethesda, MD: National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurement; 2005. NCRP Report 151.

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W

Example 10.12

Fifty milliliters of aqueous solution containing 37 × 104 MBq (10 Ci) carrier-free 90 Sr in equilibrium with 90 Y is to be stored in a laboratory. The health physicist requires the dose-equivalent rate at a distance of 50 cm from the center of the solution to be no greater than 0.1 mSv (10 mrems) per hour. Design the necessary shielding to meet this requirement. Solution The maximum and mean beta energies of 90 Sr and 90 Y are as follows:

90 Sr 90 Y

E max (MeV)

E mean (MeV)

0.54 2.27

0.19 0.93

Sum

1.12

The beta shield must be thick enough to stop the 2.27-MeV 90 Y betas. From Figure 5-4, the range of a 2.27-MeV beta is found to be 1.1 g/cm2 . Let us use a bottle made of polyethylene, speciﬁc gravity = 0.95, as the container for the radioactive solution. The wall thickness of the bottle must be g 2 cm = g = 1.16 cm. 0.95 cm3 1.1

twall

The bremsstrahlung is especially important in this case, since 90 Sr and 90 Y are pure beta emitters, and thus there are no gammas to be shielded. To estimate the bremsstrahlung dose rate at a distance of 50 cm, we ﬁrst calculate the rate at which energy is carried by the betas: MeV tps MeV E˙ β = 3.7 × 1011 Bq × 1 × 1.12 = 4.14 × 1011 . Bq transf s Then we calculate the fraction of this beta energy that is converted into bremsstrahlung with the aid of Eq. (5.12): f = 3.5 × 10−4 × Z e × E max . In this case, most of the beta-ray energy will be dissipated in the water. The effective atomic number Z e for bremsstrahlung production of a mixture or compound is N1 Z 12 + N2 Z 22 + · · ·Ni Z i2 Ni Z i2 = i Ze = N1 Z 1 + N2 Z 2 · · · Ni Z i i Ni Z i

(10.34)

EXTERNAL RADIATION SAFETY

where Ni = number of atoms of the ith element per cm3 and Z i = atomic number of the ith element. For water, H2 O, density = 1 g/cm3 , formula weight = 18, we have NH = 1 cm3 × 1

atom molecules g 1 mol × 6.03 × 1023 ×2 × 3 cm 18 g mol molecule

NH = 6.7 × 1022 atoms/cm3 , and NO = 0.5 × NH = 3.35 × 1022 atoms/cm3 . Substituting the numerical values into Eq. (10.34) gives Z e = 6.6, and substituting this value for Z e into Eq. (5.12a) gives us the fraction of the beta-ray energy that is converted into bremsstrahlung: f = 3.5 × 10−4 × 6.6 × 2.27 = 5.24 × 10−3 . If the bremsstrahlung is considered to radiate from a virtual point in the center of the solution, then the exposure dose rate at a distance d meters from this point is given by

D˙ =

f ×E

MeV J s × 1.6 × 10−13 × μ m−1 × 3.6 × 103 s MeV h, kg J/ kg 2 −3 Gy 1.293 3 × 4π d × 1 × 10 m Gy mSv

(10.35)

where μ is the linear energy absorption coefﬁcient for the quantum energy of the bremsstrahlung. In calculating bremsstrahlung dose rate for radiation safety purposes, we use the quantum energy corresponding to the average beta-ray energy, which in the case of 90 Y is 0.93 MeV. Using the value μ = 3.7 × 10−3 m−1 (from Fig. 5-19), we use Eq. (10.35) to calculate the bremsstrahlung exposure dose rate at a distance of 0.5 m from the aqueous solution of 90 Sr—90 Y to be 1.14 mSv (114 mrads) per hour. If we add a lead shield of thickness t cm, then the attenuation of the bremsstrahlung exposure dose rate can be calculated from Eq. (5.27), using a value of μ corresponding to the maximum energy beta particle. From Table 5-3, we ﬁnd that μ = 0.51 cm −1 for 2.27 MeV. Thus, we have I = I0 e −μt 0.1 = 1.14 × e −0.51×t t = 4.8 cm. Use of a buildup factor in this case is not explicitly necessary, since it was assumed in the calculation of the shield thickness that all the bremsstrahlung had quantum

567

568

CHAPTER 10

energy equal to the maximum energy of the beta particles that gave rise to the Xrays. However, this quantum energy is, in fact, the upper limit of the bremsstrahlung energy, and all the bremsstrahlung is much lower in energy than this upper limit. The thickness calculated above, therefore, implicitly accounts for buildup through the use of an attenuation coefﬁcient for the upper-energy limit of the X-rays rather than for their average energy.

Neutrons Shielding against neutrons is based on slowing down fast neutrons and absorbing thermal neutrons. In Chapter 5, it was seen that attenuation and absorption of neutrons is a complex series of events. Despite the complexity, however, the required shielding around a neutron source can be estimated by the use of removal cross sections. (For neutron energies up to 30 MeV, the removal cross section is about three-quarters of the total cross section.) In designing shielding against neutrons, it must be borne in mind that absorption of neutrons can lead to induced radioactivity and to the production of gamma radiation (capture gammas) when the neutron is absorbed into a nucleus.

W

Example 10.13

Design a shield for an 18.5 × 104 MBq (5 Ci) Pu–Be neutron source that emits 5 × 106 neutrons/s, such that the dose rate at the outside surface of the shield will not exceed 0.02 mSv/h (20 μSv/h or 2 mrems/h). The mean energy of the neutrons produced in this source is 4 MeV. Solution Let us make the shield of water and compute the minimum radius for the case of a spherical shield. Since we know that the capture of a neutron by hydrogen produces a 2.26-MeV gamma ray, let us allow for the gamma-ray dose by designing the shield to give a maximum fast-neutron dose rate of 0.01 mSv/h (1 mrem/h), which corresponds to a fast ﬂux of 3.7 neutrons/cm2 /s (Table 9-5). The total cross section for 4-MeV neutrons for hydrogen and oxygen are 1.9 and 1.7 b, respectively. Since water contains 6.7 × 1022 hydrogen atoms and 3.35 × 1022 oxygen atoms per cm3 , the linear absorption coefﬁcient, , of water is

= 1.9 × 10−24

cm2 atoms cm2 atoms × 6.7 × 1022 × 3.5 × 1022 + 1.7 × 10−24 3 atom cm atom cm3

= 0.187 cm−1 ,

EXTERNAL RADIATION SAFETY

which corresponds to an HVL of 3.71 cm. The Pu–Be may be considered as a point source of neutrons, with the neutron ﬂux decreasing with increasing distance as a result of both inverse square dispersion and attenuation by the water. If S is the source strength in neutrons s−1 , T1/2 is the HVL in cm, n is the number of HVL, and B is the buildup factor, the fast-neutron ﬂux, after passing through a thickness of nT 1/2 cm, is φ=

BS 1 neutrons × n = . 4π(nT1/2 )2 2 cm2 /s

(10.36)

For radioactive neutron sources on the order of several curies, the shield thickness is relatively large, and a signiﬁcant dose buildup due to scattered neutrons results. For a hydrogenous shield at least 20 cm thick, the dose-buildup factor is approximately 5. Using a value of 3.7 neutrons/cm2 /s for φ, 3.71 cm for T1/2 , and 5 for B, Eq. (10.36) may be solved for n to give about 9 HVLs, which corresponds to a thickness of 34 cm of water. The thermal neutrons that would escape from the surface of a spherical water shield may be estimated with the aid of Eq. (5.65): φth =

S × e −R/L . 4π RD

Since the shield radius calculated above is much greater than the fast diffusion length (which is equal to 5.75 cm), we may assume, for the purpose of this calculation, that essentially all the fast neutrons are thermalized and that the thermal neutrons are diffusing outward from the center. Substituting the appropriate numbers (D and L from Table 5-6 and R = shield radius) into Eq. (5.65), we have φth =

5 × 106 neutrons · s−1 neutrons × e −34/2.8 = 0.4 . 4π × 34 cm × 0.16 cm cm2 /s

This thermal-neutron ﬂux is so small relative to the recommended maximum thermal ﬂux of 270 neutrons/cm2 /s (Table 9-5), that it may, for most practical purposes, be ignored. Capture of a thermal neutron by a hydrogen atom results in the prompt emission of a 2.26-MeV gamma ray. The water shield, therefore, acts as a distributed source of gamma radiation. Since 3.7 fast neutrons/cm2 /s escape from the surface, the total number of those that escape from a sphere of radius 34 cm is 5.4 × 104 neutrons/s, or approximately 0.96% of the source neutrons. The remaining 99.04% are absorbed in the water, thus giving a mean “speciﬁc activity” for 2.26-MeV photons of “Bq” 810“pCi” 4.95 × 106 neutrons/s . = 30 4 cm3 cm3 π (34 cm)3 3 The dose rate at the surface of a sphere containing a uniformly distributed gamma emitter is, from Eqs. (6.66) and (6.71), 1 4π D˙ = × C × (1 − e −μr ). 2 μ

(10.37)

569

570

CHAPTER 10

Using a value 2.7 mSv/h per MBq (104 mrems/h per mCi) at 1 cm for , 0.022 cm−1 for μ in case of 2.26-MeV photons in water, and 34 cm for the radius gives Bq 1 mSv · cm2 4π D˙ = × 30 × 10−6 × 2.7 (1 − e −0.022 × 34 ) × 3 2 cm MBq · h 0.022 cm−1 D˙ = 1.2 × 10−2 mSv/h(1.2 mrems/h). The dose rate at the surface of the shield due to both neutrons and gamma rays is 22 μSv/h (2.2 mrems/h), which is very close to the desired ﬁgure of 20 μSv/h (2 mrems/h). The gamma-ray dose rate could be reduced either by increasing the gamma-ray absorption coefﬁcient of the water shield by dissolving a high-atomicnumbered substance, such as BaCl2, or by reducing the rate of production of the gamma radiation. Of these possible alternatives, the simplest one is the reduction in the production of gamma radiation. This is easily accomplished merely by dissolving a boron compound in the water. Boron captures thermal neutrons with a capture cross section of 755 b, according to the reaction 10 B +1 n →7 Li + γ (0.48 MeV). The 0.48-MeV gamma is emitted in 93% of the captures. Either sodium tetraborate (borax), Na2 B4 O7 · 10H2 O, or boric acid, H3 BO3 , both of which are highly soluble in water and very inexpensive, may be considered for this application. If suppression of gamma radiation is the objective, boric acid may be preferred over borax, since the sodium in the borax has a relatively high cross section, 505 mb, for the 23 Na(n, γ )24 Na reaction. As a consequence of this reaction, a 6.96-MeV capture gamma is emitted and radioactive 24 Na, which emits one 1.39-MeV beta, one 1.37-MeV gamma, and one 2.75-MeV gamma per disintegration is produced. The solubility of boric acid in water at room temperature is 63.2 g/L. The formula weight of H3 BO3 is 61.84. The concentration of boron atoms in the saturated solution is C boron =

63.2

L molecules atom B g × 10−3 × 6.02 × 1023 ×1 L mL mol molecule g 61.84 mol

C boron = 6.15 × 1020 atoms/mL. If we consider the macroscopic cross sections for thermal-neutron capture of the dissolved boron B and of the hydrogen H , we ﬁnd that H 0.13 cm−1 = = 0.31. B 0.42 cm−1 The ﬂux of 2.26-MeV hydrogen gamma rays, and consequently the dose rate, will be reduced by this factor to 0.31 × 0.012 mSv/h = 3.7 × 10−3 mSv/h (0.37 mrem/h). The dose rate due to the 10 B capture gammas, which is calculated from Eq. (10.37) using a photon speciﬁc activity of 0.69 × 30 × 10−6 “MBq”/cm3 (5.6 × 10−7 “mCi”/cm3 ), an absorption coefﬁcient for 0.48-MeV photons in water of 0.033 cm−1 , and a value for of 0.62 mGy-cm2 /MBq-h (2300 mrads-cm2 /mCi-h),

571

EXTERNAL RADIATION SAFETY

is found to be 1.7 × 10−3 mSv/h (0.17 mrem/h). The total dose-equivalent rate at the shield surface, therefore, is 0.01 mSv/h (1 mrem/h) fast neutrons + 0.0037 mSv/h (0.037 mrem/h) from hydrogen capture gammas + 0.0017 mSv/h (0.17 mrem/h) due to boron capture gammas = 0.015 mSv/h (1.5 mrem/h) if we saturate the water with boric acid.

OPTIMIZATION According to ICRP recommendations, and recommended maximum dose limits notwithstanding, operations involving exposure to ionizing radiation should be designed so that “any unnecessary exposure should be avoided” and that “all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), economic and social factors being taken into account.” Because the ICRP radiation safety recommendations are based on a zero-threshold dose-response model, and because we do not have inﬁnite resources to commit to radiation safety, the ICRP went on to recommend that this ALARA principle be implemented on the basis of optimization of radiation protection efforts. Optimization is the attainment of a balance between the radiation safety beneﬁts obtained from the resources committed to radiation safety and beneﬁts obtained by committing these resources to other avenues. This method of cost–beneﬁt optimization is illustrated in Figure 10-22. This ﬁgure shows graphically the cost of the sum of the detrimental effects of radiation, the detriment, which are assumed to be directly proportional to the collective dose to the population being protected plus the cost of radiation protection as a function of the collective dose. The amount of radiation protection leading to the minimum in the curve is considered the optimum degree of radiation protection. This ALARA concept has been incorporated into the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Basic Safety Standards and into the regulations of the various national regulatory agencies. Expressed mathematically, the net beneﬁt B of a given procedure is determined by the following equation: B = V − P − X − Y, where V = gross value of the procedure, P = cost of the procedure, exclusive of the cost of protection, X = protection cost, and Y = detriment cost.

(10.38)

572

CHAPTER 10

Figure 10-22. Optimization of radiation protection. (Reproduced with permission from Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency; 1982.)

To optimize protection, X + Y must be minimized. If α = cost per unit radiation detriment and the detriment from a given procedure is S, then the cost of this detriment is Y = αS,

(10.39)

and the quantity to be minimized is X + Y = X + αS.

(10.40)

If the costs of protection and detriment are a function of a parameter Z (for example, increased shielding thickness or increased ventilation rate), the minimum in the curve of cost versus dose in Figure 10-26 occurs when dX dS +α = 0, dZ dZ

(10.41)

that is, dS dX = −α . dZ dZ

(10.42)

If we wish to optimize a shield thickness, then the cost of the shield is X = C At,

(10.43)

EXTERNAL RADIATION SAFETY

573

where C = cost per unit volume of the shield, A = area of the shield, and t = thickness of the shield. The decreased radiation detriment due to the additional shielding, expressed as decreased collective dose, is given by ˙ −μt × f × N × τ, S = He

(10.44)

where H˙ = maximum dose-equivalent rate in the shielded area, f = ratio of the average to maximum dose rates in the shielded area, N = number of people in the shielded area, τ = lifetime of the shielded installation, μ = effective attenuation coefﬁcient of shielding material, and t = thickness of the additional shielding. When we differentiate X and S with respect to the shield thickness t, we get dX =C×A dt

(10.45)

and dS = H˙ × f × N × τ (−μ)e −μt . dt

(10.46)

Substituting these two derivatives into Eq. (10.42), we have C A = α × H˙ × f × N × τ × μe −μt e −μt =

CA α × H˙ × f × N × τ × μ

(10.47)

.

(10.48)

Equation (10.48) may be solved for t, the optimum shield thickness: t = ln

CA α × H˙ × f × N × τ × μ

×

1 . −μ

(10.49)

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CHAPTER 10

W

Example 10.14

A concrete shield 1 m thick × 2.5 m high × 4 m wide is designed to reduce the radiation level to 25 μSv (2.5 mrems) per hour at the surface of the shield. If 15 persons work in the shielded area, their average dose rate is 2.5 μSv (0.25 mrem) per hour, and the installation is expected to last 20 years, how much additional shielding, if any, should be added if concrete costs $150 m−3 and a person-Sv is worth $1,000,000 ($10,000 per person-rem). The effective μ of the concrete, including the buildup factor at this shield thickness, is 0.17 cm−1 . Solution If we substitute the respective values into Eq. (10.49), we obtain ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ $150 ⎜ × 10 m2 ⎜ 3 m ⎜ t = ln ⎜ h $106 Sv ⎜ × 25 × 10−6 × 0.1 × 2000 ⎜ h yr ⎜ person · Sv ⎝ 17 × 15 persons × 20 years × m

⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟× m ⎟ −17 ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

t = 0.57 m additional concrete thickness.

SUMMARY Protection against external radiation is based on the application of one or more of the following three basic principles:

r Time—Minimizing exposure time. r Distance—Maximizing distance from the source. r Shielding —Interposing a shield between the source and the receptor.

The dose rate at any distance from a source may be estimated if we know the activity of the source, the speciﬁc gamma-ray constant, and the geometric conﬁguration (i.e., a point, plane, or volume source). Gamma and X-ray shields do not completely stop all the radiation. However, the radiation intensity can be reduced to any desired level by specifying the appropriate shield thickness. Generally, high-atomic-numbered materials, such as lead, are more effective than low-atomic-numbered materials in shielding X-rays or gamma rays. In the case of beta radiation, on the other hand, low-atomic-numbered shielding material is preferred over high-atomic-numbered shields because bremsstrahlung production increases as the atomic number of the beta shield is increased. In the case of beta shielding, the beta radiation can be completely stopped by making the shield thickness equal to or greater than the range of the betas. In designing a shield

EXTERNAL RADIATION SAFETY

575

for a pure high-energy beta emitter, the bremsstrahlung produced in the shield must be considered in the shielding design. Neutron shielding is based on slowing down fast neutrons to thermal energies and then absorbing the thermal neutrons. Low-atomic-numbered materials, such as water, and hydrogenous compounds, such as parafﬁn, are effective slowing-down materials. The thermalized neutrons are most readily absorbed by materials that have a high absorption cross section, such as boron or cadmium. In designing shielding against neutrons, it must be remembered that absorption of neutrons can lead to capture gammas and to induced radioactivity and the consequent production of gamma radiation. Although radiation protection measures can be designed to reduce radiation dose to levels approaching that of the natural background, expenditure of resources to do this may be wasteful since the beneﬁts that accrue from such low doses are less than the beneﬁts that might result from expenditure of these resources in other avenues. Accordingly, we optimize the degree of radiation protection at the level at which the beneﬁts are equal to the cost of protection.

m

Problems

10.1. A Po–Be neutron source emits 107 neutrons/s of average energy 4 MeV. The source is to be stored in a parafﬁn shield of sufﬁcient thickness to reduce the fast ﬂux at the surface to 10 neutrons/cm2 /s. Consider parafﬁn to be essentially CH2 (for the purpose of this problem) and to have a density of 0.89 g/cm3 . (a) What is the minimum thickness of the parafﬁn shield? (b) If the slowing-down length is 6 cm, the thermal diffusion length is 3 cm, and the diffusion coefﬁcient is 0.381 cm, what will be the thermal-neutron leakage ﬂux at the surface of the shield? (c) What is the gamma-ray dose rate, due to the hydrogen-capture gammas, at the surface of the parafﬁn shield?

10.2. An X-ray therapy machine operates at 250 kVp and 20 mA. At a target to skin distance of 100 cm, the dose rate is 0.2 Gy/min. The workload is 100 Gy/wk. The X-ray tube is constrained to point vertically downward. At a distance of 4 m from the target is an uncontrolled waiting room. Calculate the thickness of lead to be added to the wall if the total thickness of the wall (which is made of hollow tile and plaster, density 2.35 g/cm3 ) is 2 in. (5 cm). 10.3. A 7.4 × 1013 Bq (2000 Ci) 60 Co teletherapy unit is to be installed in an existing concrete room in the basem*nt of a hospital so that the source is 4 m from the north and west walls—which are 30 in. thick. Beyond the north wall is a fully occupied controlled room. Beyond the west wall is a public parking lot. The useful beam is to be directed toward the north wall for a maximum of 5 hours per week during radiation therapy. The beam will be directed at the west wall 1 hour per week. Considering only the radiation from the primary beam, how much additional shielding, if any, is required for each of the walls?

576

CHAPTER 10

10.4. A radiochemist wants to carry a small vial containing 2 × 109 Bq (∼ 50 mCi) 60 Co solution from one hood to another. If the estimated carrying time is 3 minutes, what would be the minimum length of the tongs used to carry the vial in order that his dose not exceed 60 μGy (6 mrads) during the operation? 10.5. A viewing window for use with an isotope that emits 1-MeV gamma rays is to be made from a saturated aqueous solution of KI in a rectangular battery jar. What will be the attenuation factor, assuming conditions of good geometry, if the solution thickness is 10 cm and if the glass walls are equivalent in their attenuation property to 1-mm lead? A saturated solution of KI may be made by adding 30-g KI to 21-mL water to give a 30-mL solution at 25◦ C. Total attenuation cross sections for 1-MeV gamma rays for the elements in the solution are given in the table below: ELEMENT K H I O

ATTENUATION CROSS SECTION (BARNS) 4 0.2 12 1.7

10.6. Lead foil, whose speciﬁc gravity is 10.4, consists of an alloy containing 87% Pb, 12% Sn, and 1% Cu. If the mass attenuation coefﬁcients for these three elements are 3.50, 1.17, and 0.325 cm2 /g respectively for X-rays whose wavelength ˚ and if the speciﬁc gravities of the three elements are 11.3, 7.3, and 8.9, is 0.098 A, respectively: (a) Calculate the mass and linear attenuation coefﬁcients for lead foil. (b) What thickness of lead foil would be required to attenuate the intensity of 57 Co gamma-rays by a factor of 25? 10.7. A hypodermic syringe that will be used in an experiment in which 90 Sr solution will be injected has a glass barrel whose wall is 1.5 mm thick. If the density of the glass is 2.5 g/cm3 , how thick, in millimeters, must we make a Lucite sleeve that will ﬁt around the syringe if no beta particles are to come through the Lucite? The density of the Lucite is 1.2 g/cm3 . 10.8. A room in which a 7.4 × 1013 Bq (2000 Ci) 137 Cs source will be exposed has the following layout:

EXTERNAL RADIATION SAFETY

10.9. 10.10.

10.11.

10.12.

10.13. 10.14.

577

Calculate the thickness t of concrete so that the exposure rate at the outside surface of the wall does not exceed 0.025 mSv (2.5 mrems) per hour. What minimum density thickness must a pair of gloves have to protect the hands from 32 P radiation? When a radium source containing 50-mg Ra encapsulated in 0.5-mm-thick Pt is placed into a Pb storage container, the measured exposure rate at a distance of 1 m from the source is 5.41 μC/kg (21 mR) per hour. If this same container is used for storing 137 Cs, how many MBq may be kept in it for a period of 4 hours without exceeding an exposure of 10.3 μC/kg (40 mR) at a distance of 50 cm from the source? What is the maximum working time in a mixed radiation ﬁeld consisting of 6 μC kg−1 (23 mR) per hour gamma, 40 μGy (4 mrad) per hour fast neutrons, and 50 μGy (5 mrads) per hour thermal neutrons if a maximum dose equivalent of 3 mSv (300 mrems) has been speciﬁed for the job? Maintenance work must be done on a piece of equipment that is 2 m from an internally contaminated (with 137 Cs) valve. The exposure rate at 30 cm from the valve is 500 R/h (0.13 C/kg/h). If 4 h is the estimated repair time, what thickness of lead shielding is required to limit the dose equivalent of the maintenance men to 1 mSv (100 mrems)? Calculate the exposure rate from a 100,000-MBq (2.7-Ci) 60 Co “point” source, at a distance of 1.25 m, if the source is shielded with 10-cm Pb. A stainless steel bolt came loose from a reactor vessel. It is planned to pick up the bolt with a remotely operated set of tongs and transport it for inspection and study. The bolt had been in a mean thermal-neutron ﬂux of 2 × 1012 neutrons/cm2 /s for a period of 900 days and will be picked up 21 days after reactor shutdown. Calculate the gamma-ray dose rate at a distance of 1 m from the bolt if the bolt weighs 200 g and has the following composition by weight: Fe Ni Mn C

80% 19% 0.5% 0.5%

10.15. A circular area 1 m in diameter is accidentally contaminated with 10 MBq (270 μCi) 131 I. What is the maximum dose-equivalent rate at a distance of 1 m above the contaminated area? 10.16. Design a spherical lead storage container that will attenuate the radiation dose rate from 5 × 1010 Bq (1.35 Ci) 24 Na to 100 μGy/h (10 mrads/h) at a distance of 1 m from the source. (The source is physically small enough to be considered a “point.”) 10.17. What thickness of standard concrete is needed to reduce the intensity of a collimated beam of 10-MeV X-rays from 104 mW/cm2 to an intensity corresponding to 2.5 × 10−3 cSv/h? 10.18. A Ra–Be neutron source emits about 1.2 × 107 fast neutrons (average energy = 4 MeV) per gram Ra. What fraction of the dose equivalent from an unshielded source is due to the neutrons?

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10.19. Transport regulations for shipping a radioactive package specify a maximum surface dose rate equivalent of 2 mSv/h (200 mrems/h) and a maximum of 0.1 mSv/h (10 mrems/h) at 1 m from the surface. If aqueous 137 Cs waste is to be mixed with cement for disposal, what is the maximum speciﬁc activity of the concrete if it is to be cast in 20-L cylindrical polyethylene containers 30 cm diameter for shipment to the waste burial site? 10.20. A technician’s job in a radiopharmaceutical laboratory involves simultaneous handling of 5000 MBq (135 mCi) 125 I, 4000 MBq (108 mCi) 198 Au, and 2000 MBq (54 mCi) 24 Na for 1 hour per day, 5 days per week, for an indeﬁnitely long period of time. Her average dose equivalent during the other 7 hours will be 0.01 mSv (1 mrem). Her body will be 75 cm from the sources while she works with them, and manipulators will be provided so that her hands will not be exposed inside the shield. (a) What is the source strength for each of the sources? (b) What thickness of lead shielding is required if her weekly dose equivalent is to be within ALARA guidelines, that is, at one-tenth of the maximum permissible dose? 10.21. Design a spherical shield for a 1 × 1011 Bq (2.7 Ci) 90 Sr “point” source so that the dose-equivalent rate at the surface will not exceed 2 mSv (200 mrems) per hour. What is the dose-equivalent rate at a distance of 1 m from the shielded source? 10.22. A 10 mCi (370 MBq) 60 Co source is to be shielded in order to reduce the dose rate at 30 cm to 2 mrems/h (0.02 mSv/h). How many HVLs of lead are needed? If the HVL for 60 Co gammas is 12 mm, how thick must the shield be? 10.23. The air kerma of an X-ray beam is reduced from 10 mGy/h to 1.25 mGy/h by 2-mm lead. Calculate the (a) TVL, (b) HVL, and (c) relationship between the TVL and the HVL. 10.24. If a gamma ray beam is attenuated to 5% of the incident level by 3-mm Pb, what is the thickness of a TVL of lead? 10.25. A technician wears a 1-mm Pb equivalent leaded apron. The HVL for the radiation with which she is working is 0.25-mm Pb. If the unshielded exposure level from the source with which she is working is 25 R/h at 1 cm, what is the shielded dose equivalent rate, mrems/h, at a distance of 1 m from the source? 10.26. What is the maximum working time in a mixed radiation ﬁeld consisting of 20 mR/h gamma, 4 mrads/h fast neutrons, and 5 mrads/h thermal neutrons, if a maximum dose equivalent of 100 mrems has been speciﬁed for the job? 10.27. The exposure rate from an under-the-table ﬂuoroscope operating at 120 kVcp (kV constant potential) is 19 mR/(mA-s) at 1 m from the X-ray target. During ﬂuoroscopy, the X-ray target is 40 cm from the patient, and the tube is operating at 80 kVcp and 5 mA. What is the exposure rate, mR/s at the beam entrance to the patient? Ignore the attenuation of the table. 10.28. (a) Dose rates to members of the general public, at a distance of 1 m from large externally contaminated surfaces, are frequently given in units of mrems/yr

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per μCi/m2 . For occupational exposure, the dose conversion factor is often given as mrems/h per dpm/100 cm2 . Derive the factor for converting each of these units to the corresponding SI units. (b) The Department of Energy Publication DOE/EH/0070 lists the dose conversion factor for the skin as 58.4 mrem/yr per μCi/m2 for 90 Sr. Calculate the corresponding dose conversion factor as Sv/yr per Bq/m2 .

SUGGESTED READINGS American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Comprehensive QA for radiation oncology: Report of AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 40. Med Phys, 21:581–618, 1994. American Nuclear Society. Gamma-ray attenuation coefﬁcients and buildup factors for engineering materials. ANSI/ANS-6.4.3, American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, IL, 1991. Annals of the ICRP, International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K. ICRP Publication No. 26. Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1(3), 1977. 34. Protection of the Patient in Diagnostic Radiology, 9(2,3), 1983. 36. Protection Against Ionizing Radiation in the Teaching of Science, 10(1), 1983. 37. Cost Beneﬁt Analysis in the Optimization of Radiation Protection, 10(2,3), 1983. 38. Radionuclide Transformations: Energy and Intensity of Emissions, 11–13, 1983. 42. A Compilation of the Major Concepts and Quantities in Use by ICRP, 14(4), 1984. 44. Protection of the Patient in Radiotherapy, 15(2), 1985. 51. Data for Use in Protection Against External Radiation, 17(2,3), 1988. 52. Protection of the Patient in Nuclear Medicine, 17(4), 1988. 55. Optimization and Decision Making in Radiological Protection, 20(1), 1989. 57. Radiological Protection of the Worker in Medicine and Dentistry, 20(3), 1990. 60. 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, 21(1–3), 1991. 84. Pregnancy and Medical Radiation, 30(1), 2000. 86. Prevention of Accidents to Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy, 30(3), 2000. Blatz, H. Radiation Hygiene Handbook. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959. Blizzard, E. P., and Abbott, L. S. Reactor Handbook, Vol. III B, Shielding. Interscience, New York, 1962. Braestrup, C. B., and Wyckoff, H. O. Radiation Protection. Charles C Thomas, Springﬁeld, IL, 1958. Dresner, L., translator. Jaeger’s Principles of Radiation Protection Engineering. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965. Etherington, H., ed. Nuclear Engineering Handbook. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958. Faw, R., and Shultis, J. K. Radiological Assessment. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1993. Goldstein, H. Fundamental Aspects of Reactor Shielding. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1959. Health Physics Society. Health Physics of Radiation-Generating Machines. Proceedings of the 30th Midyear Topical Meeting. Health Physics Society, McLean, VA, 1997. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. Optimization of Radiation Protection. Proceedings of a symposium, 1986. Design and Implementation of a Radiotherapy Programme: Clinical, Medical Physics, Radiation Protection and Safety Aspects. IAEA-TECDOC-1040, 1998. Radiological Safety Aspects of the Operation of Neutron Generators. Safety Series No. 42, 1976. Absorbed Dose Determination in External Beam Radiotherapy. Technical Report Series No. 398, 2000. Assessment of Occupational Exposure Due to External Sources of Radiation. Safety Standards Series No. RS-G1.3, 1999. Radiological Protection for Medical Exposure to Ionizing Radiation. Safety Standards Series No. RS-G-1.5, 2002. Categorization of Radioactive Sources Safety Guide. Safety Standards Series No. RS-G-1.9, 2005. Applying Radiation Safety Standards in Diagnostic Radiology and Interventional Procedures Using X-Rays. Safety Reports Series No. 39, 2006.

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International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K. ICRP Publication No. 3. Report of Committee III on Protection Against X-rays up to Energies of 3 MeV and Beta and Gamma-Rays from Sealed Source, 1960. 15. Protection Against Ionizing Radiation from External Sources, 1970. 16. Protection of the Patient in X-Ray Diagnosis, 1970. 21. Data for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation from External Sources: Supplement to ICRP Publication 15, 1973. International Electrotechnical Commission. Guidelines for Radiotherapy Treatment Rooms Design. IEC 61859, International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, 1997. International Electrotechnical Commission. Particular Requirements for the Safety of Electron Accelerators in the Range of 1MeV to 50 MeV. IEC 60601-2-1, 1998. Jaeger, R. G., ed. Engineering Compendium on Radiation Shielding. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1968. Kalra, M. K., Maher, M. M., Toth, T. L., Hamberg, L. M., Blake, M. A., Shepard, J., and Saini, S. Strategies for CT radiation dose optimization. Radiol, 230:619–628, 2004. Kinsmen, S. Radiological Health Handbook, Rev ed. U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Rockville, MD, 1970. McGinley, P. H. Shielding Techniques for Radiation Oncology Facilities. Medical Physics Publishing, Madison, WI, 1998. Medich, D. C., and Martel, C. eds. Medical Health Physics. Medical Physics Publishing, Madison, WI, 2006. Methe, B. Shielding design for a PET imaging suite: A case study. Oper Radiat Saf, 84:S83-S88, 2003. Mutic, S., Low, D. A., Klein, E. E., Dempsey, J. F., and Purdy, J. A. Room shielding for intensity-modulated radiation treatment facilities. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 50:239–246, 2001. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), Bethesda, MD. NCRP Report No. 32. Radiation Protection in Educational Institutions, 1966. 33. Medical X-ray and Gamma Ray Protection for Energies Up to 10 MeV: Equipment Design and Use, 1968. 35. Dental X-ray Protection, 1970. 36. Radiation Protection in Veterinary Medicine, 1970. 38. Protection Against Neutron Radiation, 1971. 39. Basic Radiation Protection Criteria, 1971. 48. Radiation Protection for Medical and Allied Health Personnel, 1976. 49. Structural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Medical Use of X-Rays and Gamma Rays of Energies Up to 10 MeV, 1976. 51. Radiation Protection Guidelines for 0.1–100 MeV Particle Accelerator Facilities, 1977. 68. Radiation Protection in Pediatric Radiology, 1981. 72. Radiation Protection and Measurement for Low-Voltage Neutron Generators, 1983. 85. Mammography—A User’s Guide, 1986. 99. Quality Assurance for Diagnostic Imaging, 1988. 102. Medical X-Ray, Electron Beam, and Gamma-Ray Protection for Energies up to 50 MeV. Equipment Design, Performance, and Use, 1989. 105. Radiation Protection for Medical and Allied Health Personnel, 1989. 106. Limit for Exposure to “Hot Particles” on the Skin, 1989. 107. Implementation of the Principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) for Medical and Dental Personnel, 1990. 116. Limitation of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation, 1993. 120. Dose Control at Nuclear Power Plants, 1994. 147. Structural Shielding Design for Medical X-Ray Imaging Facilities, 2004. 151. Structural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Megavoltage X- and Gamma Ray Radiotherapy Facilities, 2005. OECD. Optimization in Operational Radiological Protection. Nuclear Energy Agency, Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris, 2005. Okunade, A. A. Effective dose as a limiting quantity for the evaluation of primary barriers for diagnostic X-ray facilities. Health Phys, 89(Suppl 5): S100–S116, Operational Radiation Safety, 2005. Orn, M. K. Handbook of Engineering Control Methods for Occupational Radiation Protection. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1992. Paic, G. Ionizing Radiation: Protection and Dosimetry. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1988.

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Patterson, W., and Thomas, R. H. Accelerator Health Physics. Academic Press, New York, 1973. Price, B. T., Horton, C. C., and Spinney, K. T. Radiation Shielding. Pergamon, New York, 1957. Proﬁo, E. Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry. Wiley, New York, 1979. Rockwell, T., ed. Reactor Shielding Design Manual. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1956. Schaefer, N. M., ed. Reactor Shielding for Nuclear Engineers. TID-25951, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC, 1973. Schleien, B. S., Slabeck, L. A., Jr, Kent, B. K. Handbook of Health Physics and Radiological Health. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1998. Shapiro, J. Radiation Protection, 4th ed. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 2002. Shultis, J. K., and Faw, R. E. Radiation shielding technology. Health Phys, 88:297–322, 2005. Stedfore, B., Morgan, H. M., Mayless, W. P. M., eds. The Design of Radiotherapy Treatment Room Facilities. Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine, York, U.K., 1997. Turner, J. E. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986. Van Pelt, W. R., and Drzyzga, M. Beta radiation shielding with lead and plastic: Effect on bremsstrahlung radiation when switching the shielding order. Oper Radiat Saf, 92(2):S13–S17, 2007. Zacarias, A., Balog, J., and Mills, M. Radiation shielding design of a new tomography facility. Health Phys, 91:289–295, 2006.

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11 INTERNAL R ADIATION SAFETY INTERNAL RADIATION Internal radiation exposure occurs when radionuclides from environmental contamination enter the body. The consequences of this internal contamination may range from innocuous to very serious, depending on the quantity of the contaminating radionuclide and the dose that it delivers. In many instances, the level of contamination is known only after a lengthy investigation, which may include bioassay measurements. Accordingly, internal radiation safety is concerned mainly with preventing or minimizing the intake of radionuclides into the body and the deposition of radioactivity on the body. This is accomplished by a program designed to keep environmental contamination within acceptable limits and as low as reasonably achievable. This last point, keeping environmental contamination levels as low as reasonably achievable, is especially important in the context of internal radiation safety. External radiation exposure is due to radiation originating in sources outside the body; there is no physical contact with the radiation source, and exposure ceases when one leaves the radiation area or when the source is removed. Since external radiation may be measured with relative ease and accuracy, the potential or actual hazards may be estimated with a good deal of conﬁdence. In the case of internal contamination, on the other hand, the radiation dose cannot be directly measured; it can only be calculated. As a consequence of the fact that radioactivity is deposited on or within the body, irradiation of the contaminated person continues even after the person leaves the area where the contamination occurred. It must be emphasized, however, that the fact that an internally deposited radioisotope continues to irradiate as long as it is in the body is explicitly considered in calculating the dose from an internally deposited radionuclide or when calculating the annual limits of intake (ALIs) of the various radionuclides. In the context of potential harm, the radiation dose from an internally deposited radionuclide is no different from the same dose absorbed from external radiation. Therefore, it must be emphasized that, dose for dose, the consequences of internal radiation are the same as those from external radiation; a 583

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milligray is a milligray and a millirem is a millirem, regardless of whether it was delivered from an internally deposited radionuclide or from external radiation.

PRINCIPLES OF CONTROL Radioactive substances, like other noxious agents, may gain entry into the body through three pathways: 1. Inhalation—by breathing radioactive gases and aerosols. 2. Ingestion—by drinking contaminated water, eating contaminated food, or tactilely transferring radioactivity to the mouth. 3. Absorption—through the intact skin or through wounds. Basically, therefore, safety measures to counter internal radiation are designed to either block the portals of entry into the body or to interrupt the transmission of radioactivity from the source to the worker. This can be effected either at the source, by enclosing and conﬁning it, or at the worker, through the use of protective clothing and respiratory protective devices. Additionally, work practices and schedules should be designed so as to minimize contamination and exposure to contaminated environments. It should be noted that these control measures are the same as those employed by the industrial hygienist in the protection of workers from the effects of nonradioactive noxious substances. However, the degree of control required for radiological safety almost always greatly exceeds the requirements for chemical safety. This point is made clear by the ﬁgures in Table 11-1, which compare the maximum allowable atmospheric concentrations of several nonradioactive noxious substances to the maximum concentrations recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for radioactive forms of the same element.

Control of the Source: Conﬁnement The simplest type of conﬁnement and enclosure may be accomplished by limiting the handling of radioactive materials to well-deﬁned, separated areas within a laboratory and by the use of subordinate isolating units such as trays. For low-level work, where there is no likelihood of releasing a gas, vapor, or aerosol to the atmosphere in a quantity exceeding 1 ALI, this may be sufﬁcient. If the possibility exists of releasing to the atmosphere—either as gas, vapor, or aerosol—amounts of radioactivity between TABLE 11-1. Concentration Limits of Several Substances Based on Chemical and Radiological Toxicity CONCENTRATION LIMITS (mg/m3 ) Nonradioactive Beryllium Mercury Lead Arsenic Cadmium Zinc

0.002 0.1 0.05 0.01 0.1 5

Radioactive 7 Be 203 Hg 210 Pb 74 As 115 Cd 65 Zn

1.7 × 10−8 5 × 10−9 1 × 10−9 3 × 10−9 4 × 10−10 1.2 × 10−8

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Figure 11-1. Effect of fan location on direction of leakage in the ductwork. The fan should be close to the discharge end, thereby creating a negative pressure in the ductwork and causing ductwork leakage to be into the duct.

1 and 10 times the ALI, the usual practice is to use a ventilated hood. The purpose of the ventilated hood is to dilute and to sweep out the released radioactivity with the air that ﬂows through the hood. In order to accomplish this purpose, it thus is essential to have a sufﬁcient amount of air ﬂowing through the hood at all times. Constant airﬂow velocity may be maintained by using a bypass that opens as the face of the hood is closed. Openings along the bottom of the front-face frame facilitate the ﬂow of air when the face is closed. Figure 11-1 shows a typical radiochemistry fume hood. The face velocity must be great enough to prevent contaminated air from ﬂowing out of the face into the laboratory but not great enough to produce turbulence around the edges, which would allow the contaminated air from the hood to spill out into the laboratory. It has been found that velocities of 125–275 ft/min (0.6–1.4 m/s) are required. To minimize the possibility of contaminating the working environment with the exhaust from the hood, all ductwork must be kept under negative pressure. Any leakage in the ductwork will then be into the duct. This is most easily accomplished by locating the exhaust fan at the discharge end of the exhaust line, as shown in Figure 11-1. For purposes of environmental control and hazard evaluation, aerosols are deﬁned as airborne particles and are classiﬁed according to their size and manner of production: Fumes—Solid particles resulting from a change of state. For example, lead monoxide (PbO) fumes are produced when lead is vaporized, whereupon the molecules are oxidized and then condensed to form solid particles. The particle sizes are less than 0.1 μm.

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Dusts—Solid particles resulting from pulverizing large chunks of matter or resuspending previously pulverized matter. Particle sizes range from ∼0.1 μm to 30 μm. Particles larger than 30 μm are not considered to be inhalable. Inertials—Particles that are about 50 μm or greater in size. Smokes—Products of combustion. Sizes range from submicron to several millimeters. Mists—Liquid particles of any size. If a hood is designed to remove only gases and vapors, an air velocity in the ductwork of about 2000 ft/min (∼10 m/s) is sufﬁcient. For fumes, the recommended duct velocity is 2500 ft/min (12–13 m/s). Since larger particulate matter tends to settle out, the air transport velocity must be on the order of 3500–4500 ft/min (18– 22 m/s) if particle fallout is to be minimized. If the exhaust from the hood is of such a nature that it may create a radioactive pollution problem, the efﬂuent from the hood must be decontaminated by an appropriate air-cleaning device. For this purpose, if the pollutant is an aerosol, a rough ﬁlter followed by a ﬁre-resistant, high-efﬁciency ﬁlter is commonly employed. As used in this context, a high-efﬁciency ﬁlter is one that removes at least 99.995% of 0.3-μm-diameter hom*ogeneous particles of dioctylphthalate (DOP). The ﬁlter should not offer a resistance greater than 1 in. (25.4 mm) water when air at 70◦ F (21◦ C) and 29.9 in. (760 mm) Hg ﬂows through it at its rated capacity. A manometer or other device should be used to indicate when the ﬁlter is loaded and ready to be changed. A ﬁlter loaded with radioactive dust can easily become a source of contamination if adequate precautions to prevent the dust from falling off the ﬁlter during the changing operation are not taken. A simple way to minimize dispersal of loose dust when removing the ﬁlter is to spray the ﬁlter faces with an aerosol lacquer before removing the ﬁlter, thereby trapping the radioactive dust in the ﬁlter. For this purpose, access ports upstream and downstream of the ﬁlter should be provided in the ductwork. If the nature of an operation involving radioactivity is such that it must be completely enclosed—that is, if the operation is potentially capable of contaminating the working environment with more than 10 times the recommended maximum body burden or when the large quantities of air required by a hood are not available— then a glove box (Fig. 11-2) is used. It should be reemphasized here that, whereas the main function of a fume hood is to dilute and remove atmospheric contaminants, the main function of a glove box is to isolate the contaminant from the environment by conﬁning it to the enclosed volume. Accordingly, the airﬂow through the glove box may be very small—on the order of 0.01–0.02 m3 /s (25–50 ft3 /min). Air is usually admitted into the glove box through a high-efﬁciency ﬁber-glass ﬁlter (to prevent discharge of radioactive dust into the room in case of an accidental positive pressure inside the glove box) and is exhausted through a series of ﬁre-resistant, rough, and high-efﬁciency ﬁlters. Airborne particles small enough to be carried by this ﬂow of air are thus transferred out of the glove box into the ﬁlter; larger particles fall out inside the glove box and remain there until cleaned out. A negative pressure of at least 13 mm (0.5 in.) water inside the glove box assures that any air leakage will be into the box. Despite the negative pressure, however, it may be assumed that a small fraction, about 10−8 , of the activity inside the glove box will leak out during the course of normal use of the glove box. The laboratory should be prepared to handle

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Figure 11-2. Glove box for operations with low-intensity radioactive materials that might accidentally become dispersed into the environment if not handled in an enclosed volume. In use, long rubber gloves ﬁt over the port ﬂanges; material transferred into or out of the glove box through the air lock at the right of the glove box. (Courtesy of Innovative Technology, Inc.)

such contamination, and the health physicist should be prepared to account for this activity in the design and operation of the surveillance program. For maximum safety, transfer of materials and apparatus into or out of the glove box is always done through an air lock. The viewing panel may be heat-resistant safety plate glass. Glove boxes are unshielded when used for handling radioisotopes that do not create high radiation levels. For radioisotopes that do create high levels of radiation, shielding must be added. When handling a high-energy, beta-emitting radioisotope, it may be necessary to use extra-thick gloves. When we wish to contain substances that have a high degree of toxicity, we must have a highly effective containment. However, no hood provides absolutely perfect containment; some very small fraction of the noxious material that is emitted in the hood will escape to the environment. The effectiveness of a hood is determined by a number of factors, including its physical construction, face velocity, air currents in the laboratory, and so on. Several different methods are used to determine the effectiveness of a hood. All depend on releasing a vapor or a gas in the hood and then measuring the concentration of the test gas in the breathing zone directly in front of the hood. In a commonly used method, a test gas or vapor, such as alcohol or acetone,

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is released in the hood, and its concentration in the exhaust air is measured. At the same time, a breathing-zone measurement is made. The hood protection factor, HPF, is deﬁned as HPF =

W

exhaust concentration . breathing-zone concentration

(11.1)

Example 11.1

Acetone is introduced into a chemical fume hood and is found to have a concentration of 1000 ppm in the hood’s exhaust. A breathing zone sample taken with a charcoal tube shows a breathing-zone concentration of 1 ppm. Calculate the value of HPF. Solution With the aid of Eq. (11.1), we ﬁnd the HPF to be 1000. Hoods designed for radioisotope use have HPF values on the order of 10,000 or more.

Environmental Control Environmental control of hazards from radioactive contamination begins with the proper design of the buildings, rooms, or physical facilities in which radioisotopes will be used; it continues with the proper design of the procedures and processes in which radioactivity will be employed. Since a ﬁnite probability exists that an accidental breakdown of a mechanical device or a human failure will occur despite the best efforts to prevent such a breakdown, the course of action to be taken in the event of an emergency must be known before the emergency occurs. In the design of the physical facilities, attention must be paid to the decontaminability of working surfaces, ﬂoors, and walls; plumbing and means for monitoring or storing radioactive waste, both liquid and solid; means for incinerating radioactive waste; isotope storage facilities; change rooms and showers; and ventilation and the direction of airﬂow. Airﬂow should be directed from ofﬁce to corridor to area where radioisotopes are handled to exhaust through an air-cleaning system that will assure radiological safety outside the building. Strict control—including monitoring of all persons, materials, and equipment leaving the radiation area—must be maintained over the area where radioisotopes are being used or stored in order to prevent the spread of contamination outside the radiation area. The degree to which each of these control measures is implemented depends, of course, on the types and amounts of isotopes handled and on the consequences of an accidental release of radioactivity to the environment. Radionuclides that are not in use should be stored in a locked cabinet or area to prevent loss of control when the legitimate user is not in the laboratory or in the workplace. In order to maintain a radiologically safe environment and to prevent internal radiation hazards, good housekeeping and good ventilation must be practiced. In

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regard to ventilation requirements, several important facts should be emphasized. The ﬁrst is that ﬁne particles under the inﬂuence of gravity do not, for practical purposes, move independently of the air in which they are suspended. Such particles behave effectively as if they were weightless and can be assumed to remain suspended indeﬁnitely in the air. Control of airborne dust particles, thus, is reduced to a matter of airﬂow control.

Control of the Worker: Protective Clothing Radiation safety philosophy advocates the restriction of radiation exposure to levels as far below the recommended maximums as is reasonably achievable. Since it is extremely difﬁcult to maintain absolute radiological asepsis when working with unsealed sources and the possibility of an accidental spill or release to the environment of radioactivity always exists, it is customary to require radioisotope workers to wear protective clothing in order to prevent contamination of the skin. Workers in nuclear power plants may be simultaneously exposed to multiple hazards, such as heat, noise, electric shock, physical trauma, and chemicals in addition to the radiation environment. They, therefore, may require special protective equipment and clothing, such as heat-resistant garments with built-in cooling systems to prevent heat stress, ear plugs prevent hearing loss, and rubber gloves to prevent electric shock. Clothing worn to prevent skin contamination (anti-C clothing), which may include laboratory coats, coveralls, caps, gloves, and shoes or shoe covers, must be restricted to the contaminated area. Protective clothing is always assumed to be contaminated and therefore must be removed when the worker leaves the contaminated area. To be most effective, the protective clothing should be designed so that the worker can remove it easily and without transferring contamination from the clothing to his or her skin or to the environment. To this end, the worker should be instructed in the proper sequence of removal of the protective clothing before stepping out of the contaminated area into a clean area. Workers should always be monitored before leaving the contaminated area. Protective clothing, by its very nature, must become contaminated; its main function is to intercept radioactivity that would otherwise contaminate the worker’s skin or the clothing worn outside the radioactivity area. The degree of allowable contamination on the protective clothing varies with the type of work that the wearer does. For this reason, the degree of contamination permitted on protective clothing is determined by the individual installation. Table 11-2 lists the guidelines used in nuclear facilities for maximum contamination levels for protective clothing.

TABLE 11-2. Guideline for Protective Clothing Used in Nuclear Facilitiesa GARMENT Coveralls, lab coats, and hats or hoods Gloves and shoe covers

MAXIMUM RADIATION LEVEL, β, γb 2.5 mrems/hc 10 mrems/h

a. Clothing normally laundered after each use. May be reworn when previously worn in areas less than 10,000 dpm/100 cm2 removable contamination. (Note: dpm = disintegrations per minute) b. If guideline is extended, the clothing should be stored for use in the contaminated area. c. This is an average value over the garment as long as any one spot does not exceed 10 mrems/h.

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Laundering contaminated protective equipment is a complex operation. It requires knowledge of the mechanisms of cleaning and of the effects of the cleaning agents on the composition and construction of the protective clothing. For most isotope laboratories, the simplest method for dealing with contaminated protective clothing is to rent the protective clothing from a commercial supplier and to return the contaminated clothing to the supplier. For those installations that do their own laundry, ordinary laundering procedures, using sodium hexa-meta-phosphate or sodium ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (Na-EDTA) added to the wash water may facilitate the removal of the contaminants. After laundering, the protective clothing should be monitored to ascertain that it has, in fact, been decontaminated to some previously determined limit. If a piece of protective clothing is unusually or very severely contaminated, it may be simpler to dispose of the item as low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) rather than to try to decontaminate it. Unless the wash water meets regulatory requirements for discharge into the sanitary sewer system (such as 10 CFR 20, Appendix B, Table 3), it must be treated as LLRW.

Control of the Worker: Respiratory Protection When a worker is likely to be exposed to airborne radioactivity, respiratory protection must be considered. According to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) requirements, the sum of the internal and external doses must be minimized. Wearing a respirator decreases a worker’s efﬁciency by about 20–25%. Thus, if exposure to airborne radioactivity occurs simultaneously with external radiation exposure, an ALARA-based decision must be made regarding the use of a respiratory protective device, as explained in Chapter 8.

Medical Assessment It must be strongly emphasized that a worker must be medically approved for respirator use before being allowed to put on a respirator or being ﬁtted for one. Wearing a respirator effectively increases the volume of the upper respiratory tract, thereby decreasing the volume of air that reaches the deep respiratory tract (where gas exchange occurs). To compensate for this decreased air supply, the body’s homeostatic mechanisms increase the respiratory rate and the rate of blood ﬂow through the lungs. These rate increases lead to increased demands on the heart muscle. If the worker’s cardiovascular and respiratory systems are in good health, then these increased cardiac demands are safely met. On the other hand, if the worker has an impaired cardiovascular system, the heart may not be capable of meeting this increased demand and a heart attack may ensue. For this reason, a worker who may have to wear a respirator on the job must be tested and approved for respirator use by a qualiﬁed physician before he or she is allowed to use a respirator.

Respiratory Protective Devices The exact type of respiratory protective device that may be required depends on the nature of the airborne contaminant. Respiratory protective devices may be used only for those hazards for which they are designed. Half-mask or full-mask facepieces must not leak and must ﬁt properly. Accordingly, the wearer of a respirator must be ﬁttested before a respirator is assigned. Respiratory protective devices for radiological protection may be classiﬁed into several major categories, as shown in Table 11-3.

TABLE 11-3. Protection Factors for Respiratorsa TESTED AND CERTIFIED EQUIPMENT PROTECTION FACTORSb DESCRIPTIONc

MODESd

1. Air-purifying Respirators Facepiece, half-mask Facepiece, full Facepiece, half-mask, full, hood 2. Atmosphere-supplying respirators a. Air-line respirator Facepiece, half-mask Facepiece, half-mask Facepiece, full Facepiece, full Facepiece, full Hood Suit b. Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) Facepiece, full Facepiece, full Facepiece, full Facepiece, full 3. Combination respirators: Any combination of air- purifying and atmosphere-supplying respirators

Particles Only

NP NP PP

Particles, Gases, and Vapors

10 50 1000

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health/ Mine Safety and Health Administration Tests for Permissibility 30 CFR Part 11, Subpart K

CF D CF D PD CF CF

1000 5 2000 5 2000 (h) (i)

30 CFR Part 11, Subpart J

D PD RD RP

50 10,000 50 5000

30 CFR Part 11 Subpart H

Protection factor for type and mode of operation as listed above

30 CFR Part 11, § 11.63(b)

a For

use in the selection of respiratory protective devices that are to be used only where the contaminants have been identiﬁed and the concentrations (or possible concentrations) are known. protection factor is a measure of the degree of protection afforded by the respirator, deﬁned as the ratio of the concentration of airborne radioactive materials outside the respiratory protective equipment to that inside the equipment (usually inside the facepiece) under conditions of use. It is applied to the ambient airborne concentration to estimate the concentrations inhaled by the wearer according to the following formula:

b The

Concentration inhaled =

Ambient airborne concentration Protection factor

c Only

591

for shaven faces where nothing interferes with the seal of tight-ﬁtting facepieces against the skin. (Hoods and suits are excepted.) mode symbols are deﬁned as follows: CF = continuous ﬂow; D = demand; NP = negative pressure (i.e., negative phase during inhalation); PD = pressure demand (i.e., always positive pressure); RD = demand, recirculating (closed circuit); RP = pressure demand, recirculating (closed circuit). d The

Source: Abstracted from NRC Regulations: 10 CFR Part 20, Appendix A.

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Air-purifying respirators remove the contaminant, either by use of a ﬁlter for aerosols or by chemical cartridges that remove gases. Because of the speciﬁc action of the chemical agents on the contaminant, different canisters must be used for different gases. For this reason, gas masks are not usually recommended for use against radioactive gases. Supplied air respiratory protective devices may be used against either or both radioactive gases or radioactive aerosols. In this category of protective devices, we have two subcategories: (1) airline hoods, which utilize uncontaminated air under positive (with respect to the atmosphere) pressure supplied from a remote source, and (2) self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), in which breathing air is supplied either from a bottle carried by the user or from a canister containing oxygen-generating chemicals. The advantage of the supplied air device is that the pressure in the breathing zone is higher than atmospheric pressure. As a consequence, leakage is from the inside to outside. When using a supplied air device, it is imperative that the time limitation on the supply air is known. It is also imperative that the breathing air coupling must be incompatible with couplings for all other gases or nonrespirable laboratory or plant air, in order to prevent such gases from being inadvertently supplied to the airline respirator. Color coding of couplings and outlets for this purpose is not sufﬁcient, because a color-blind person would not recognize the color code. As shown in Example 8.12, use of a respirator in an area where there is both external radiation and airborne radioactivity may actually increase the worker’s total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). In instances of both radiation and airborne radioactivity, the health physicist will recommend, on the basis of TEDE minimization, whether the worker should wear a respiratory protective device. A worker may insist on wearing a respirator, even if this results in an increased TEDE, in the mistaken belief that a rem from internal exposure is more serious than a rem from external exposure.

SURFACE CONTAMINATION LIMITS Contamination of personnel and/or equipment may occur either from normal operations or as a result of the breakdown of protective measures. An exact quantitative deﬁnition of contamination that would be applicable in all situations cannot be given. Generally, contamination means the presence of undesirable radioactivity— undesirable either in the context of health or for technical reasons, such as increased background, interference with tracer studies, etc. In this discussion, only the health aspects of contamination are considered. Surface contamination falls into two categories, ﬁxed and loose. In the case of ﬁxed contamination, the radioactivity cannot be transmitted to personnel, and the hazard, consequently, is that of external radiation. For ﬁxed contamination, therefore, the degree of acceptable contamination is directly related to the external radiation dose rate. Setting a maximum limit for ﬁxed surface contamination thus becomes a relatively simple matter. The hazard from loose surface contamination arises mainly from the possibility of tactile transmission of the radioactive contaminant to

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INTERNAL RADIATION SAFETY

the mouth or to the skin or of resuspending the contaminant and then inhaling it. It follows that the degree of hazard from surface contamination is strongly dependent on the degree to which the contaminant is ﬁxed to the surface. Dealing with loose surface contamination limits is not as straightforward as dealing with contamination of air and water. In the case of air and water contamination, safety standards can be easily set—at least in theory—on the basis of recommended dose limits. Using these criteria, we can calculate maximum annual intake of a radionuclide that would lead to the recommended dose limit. From the calculated intake limit, we go one step further from the basic radiation safety criteria and compute the maximum concentrations in air and water which, if continuously inhaled or ingested, would result in the ALI. For the case of surface contamination, we go one more step away from the basic criteria; we try to estimate the surface contamination that, if it were to be dispersed into the environment, would result in concentrations that might lead to an excessive body burden. Thus, speciﬁcation of limits for loose surface contamination is three steps removed from the basic safety requirements. From the foregoing discussion, it is clear that limits for surface contamination cannot be ﬁxed in the same sense as limits for the concentration of radionuclides in air and water. Nevertheless, it is useful to compute a number that may serve as a guide in the evaluation of the hazard to workers from surface contamination and to assist the health physicist in deciding whether or not to require the use of special protective measures for workers in contaminated areas. On the basis of per-unit quantity of radioactivity, inhalation is considered the most serious route of exposure. Surface contamination, therefore, is usually limited by the inhalation hazard that may arise from resuspension of the contaminant. The quantitative relationship between the concentration of loose surface contamination and consequent atmospheric concentration above the contaminated surface due to stirring up the surface is called the resuspension factor, f r , and is deﬁned by fr =

atmospheric concentration Bq/m3 . surface concentration Bq/m2

(11.2)

Experimental investigation of the resuspension of loose surface contamination shows that the resuspension factor varies from about 10−4 to 10−8 , depending on the conditions under which the studies were conducted. A value of 10−6 is reasonable for the purpose of estimating the hazard from surface contamination.

W

Example 11.2

Estimate the maximum surface contamination of “insoluble” strontium 90 (90 Sr) dust that may be allowed before taking special safety measures to protect personnel against a contamination hazard.

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Solution The derived atmospheric concentration of 90 Sr recommended in ICRP 30 is 60 Bq/m3 (2 × 10−9 μCi/cm3 ). Using a value of 10−6 m−1 for the resuspension factor in Eq. (11.2), we have 10−6 m−1 =

60 Bq/m3 . surface concentration

Therefore, surface concentration = 60 × 106 Bq/m2 = 60 MBq/m2 2 × 10−3 μCi/cm2 . A ﬁgure for loose surface contamination calculated by the method of Example 11.2 is intended only as a guide. In any particular case, the health physicist may, at his or her discretion and depending on the nature of the operation, the degree of ventilation, and other relevant factors, such as the area of contamination and the TABLE 11-4. Recommended Action Levels for Removable Surface Contamination in Manufacturing Plants TYPE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL ALPHA EMITTERS

TYPE OF SURFACE 1. Unrestricted areas 2. Restricted areas 3. Personal clothing worn outside restricted areas 4. Protective clothing worn only in restricted areas

High Toxicity (μCi/cm2 )

Lower Toxicity (μCi/cm2 )

Beta- or X-ray Emitters (μCi/cm2 )

Low-Risk Betaor X-Ray Emitters (μCi/cm2 )

10−7 10−4 10−7

10−7 10−3 10−7

10−6 10−3 10−6

10−6 10−2 10−6

10−5

10−5

10−4

10−4

Note on Skin Contamination: Skin contamination should always be kept ALARA. Exposed areas of the body of persons working with unsealed radioactive materials should always be monitored and should be washed when any contamination is detected. It is important, however, that contaminated skin should not be so treated or scrubbed that the chance of intake of radioactivity into the body is increased. High toxicity alpha emitters include Am-243, Am-241, Np-237, Ac-227, Th-230, Pu-242, Pu-238, Pu-240, Pu-239, Th-228, and Cf-252. Lower toxicity alpha emitters include those having permissible concentrations in air greater than that for Ra-226 (s) in 10 CFR Part 20, Appendix B, Table 1, Column 1. Beta- or X-ray emitter values are applicable for all beta- or X-ray emitters other than those considered low risk. Low-risk nuclides include those whose beta energies are less than 0.2 MeV, whose gamma- or X-ray emission is less than 0.1 R/h at 1 m/Ci, and whose permissible concentration in air in 10 CFR Part 20, Appendix B, Table 1, is greater than 10−6 μCi/mL. Contamination limits for unrestricted (noncontamination-controlled) areas in this table are considered to be compatible in level of safety with those for release of facilities and equipment for unrestricted use, as given in Regulatory Guide 1.86, ”Termination of Operating Licenses for Nuclear Reactors,” and in ”Guidelines for Decontamination of Facilities and Equipment Prior to Release for Unrestricted Use or Termination of Licenses for Byproduct, Source, or Special Nuclear Material,” which is available from the Division of Fuel Cycle and Material Safety, Ofﬁce of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. 20555. As adapted from Table 1 of Reference 4. Averaging is acceptable over inanimate areas of up to 300 cm2 or, for ﬂoors, walls, and ceiling, 100 cm2 . These limits are allowed only in those restricted areas where appropriate protective clothing is worn. Reprinted with permission from King S H, Granlund RW. Organization and management of a radiation safety ofﬁce. In: Miller KL. Handbook of Management of Radiation Protection Programs. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1992.

INTERNAL RADIATION SAFETY

595

TABLE 11-5. Surface Contamination Limits Used by the U.S. Department of Energy

NUCLIDEa U-natural, U-235, U-238, and associated decay products Transuranics, Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-230, Th-228, Pa-231, Ac-227, I-125, I-129 Th-natural, Th-232, Sr-90, Ra-223, Ra-224, U-232, I-126, I-131, I-133 Beta–gamma emitters (nuclides with decay modes other than alpha emission or spontaneous ﬁssion) except Sr-90 and others noted above. Includes mixed ﬁssion products containing Sr-90 Tritium organic compounds, surfaces contaminated by HT, HTO, and metal tritide aerosols

REMOVABLE dpm/100 cm2b,c 1000 alpha 20 200 1000 beta-gamma

1,0000

TOTAL FIXED PLUS REMOVABLE (dpm/100 cm2 ) 5000 alpha 500 1000 5000 beta-gamma

1,0000

a The

values in this table apply to radioactive contamination deposited on but not incorporated into the interior of the contaminated item. Where contamination by both alpha- and beta–gamma-emitting nuclides exists, the limits established for the alpha- and beta–gamma-emitting nuclides apply independently. b The amount of removable radioactive material per 100 cm2 of surface area should be determined by swiping the area with dry ﬁlter or soft absorbent paper while applying moderate pressure and then assessing the amount of radioactive material on the swipe with an appropriate instrument of known efﬁciency. For objects with a surface area less than 100 cm2 , the entire surface should be swiped, and the activity per unit area should be based on the actual surface area. Except for transuranics, Ra-228, Ac-227, Th-228, Th-230, Pa-231 and alpha emitters, it is not necessary to use swiping techniques to measure removable contamination levels if direct scan surveys indicate that the total residual contamination levels are below the values for removable contamination. c The levels may be averaged over 1 m2 provided the maximum activity in any area of 100 cm2 is less than three times the values in Table 11-5.

Source: Adapted from Radiological Control Manual. Washington, DC: US Department of Energy.

volume of the workroom, generally use more stringent surface-contamination limits for the use of personal protective clothing. On the basis of the ALARA principle, administrative limits for surface contamination are much more restrictive than those calculated using the resuspension factor. Various laboratories and nuclear installations have set their own limits for contamination of surfaces, personnel, equipment, and protective clothing. Tables 11-4 and 11-5 are given to illustrate some of the contamination standards maintained by several large users of radioisotopes.

WASTE MANAGEMENT Proper collection and management of radioactive waste is an integral part of contamination control and internal (as well as external) radiation protection. In one sense, we cannot “dispose” of radioactive waste. All other types (nonradioactive) of hazardous wastes can be treated, either chemically, physically, or biologically in order to reduce their toxicity. In the case of radioactive wastes, on the other hand, nothing can be done to decrease their radioactivity, and hence their inherent toxic properties. The only means of ultimate disposal is through time—to allow the radioactivity to decay. However, the wastes can be treated and stored in a manner that essentially eliminates their potential threat to the biosphere. Solid and liquid wastes are treated to minimize their volume, and liquid wastes are converted into solids by such means as vitriﬁcation, or by incorporating the liquid either into concrete or

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CHAPTER 11

asphalt, or into an insoluble plastic. The treated solid waste is packaged in containers according to the class of the waste and buried either in shallow engineered trenches in seismologically and hydrologically stable soil that are then covered with soil, or in deep seismologically and hydrologically stable geologic formations. Radioactive wastes, which include materials of widely differing types and activities, can originate from any industrial, medical, scientiﬁc, university, decommissioning, or agricultural activity in which radioisotopes are used or produced. For regulatory purposes, waste is considered to be radioactive if it contains radionuclides at concentrations or activities greater than those speciﬁed by a regulatory authority. For example, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC) regulations state that 3 H and 14 C in animal tissues and in liquid scintillation media in concentrations not greater than 0.05 μCi (1850 Bq) per gram may be disposed of as if it were not radioactive. It must be emphasized that this deﬁnition of radioactive waste is for regulatory purposes only. Waste materials whose activity, quantity, or concentration does not exceed this regulatory lower limit are radioactive from a physical point of view. However, because of their low levels of activity, they are not considered to be hazardous.

Waste Classiﬁcation For purposes of management and treatment, radioactive wastes may be classiﬁed according to their activity level and their half-lives. For example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) deﬁnes high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) as the waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel or any other waste whose activity is comparable to fuel-reprocessing waste. Furthermore, HLRW is distinguished by its high rate of heat generation. Low- and intermediate-level wastes are deﬁned by the IAEA as wastes whose radionuclide content and thermal power levels are below those of HLRW. In the United States, the classiﬁcation of radioactive wastes is similar to that of the IAEA. HLRW includes reprocessing wastes from the nuclear weapons program and spent nuclear fuel from commercial nuclear power plants. When it is removed from the nuclear reactor, spent nuclear fuel contains about 1% 235 U, about 95% 238 U, and about 5% ﬁssion products plus transuranic elements, including plutonium isotopes. Although uranium and plutonium are potentially useful, it was decided for sociopolitical reasons not to reprocess spent nuclear reactor fuel in the United States. Accordingly, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act was passed in 1982. This law mandated that HLRW and spent nuclear fuel are to be stored, under conditions that would ensure safety for thousands of years, in a geologic repository. Following the IAEA classiﬁcation system, all radioactive waste in the United States that is not classiﬁed as HLRW is called low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). LLRW is further subclassiﬁed, in 10 CFR 61, on the basis of the speciﬁc radioisotopes, their concentration, and their half lives into class A, class B, and class C, with class A being the lowest level of potential hazard and class C having the highest degree of potential hazard. Class A and class B waste will decay away within 100 years. Wastes whose activity exceeds that of the class C limit are called greater-than-class-C (GTCC) wastes, and are treated like HLRW. Prior to 1980, LLRW was put into containers, such as steel drums, after reduction in volume to the minimum practical size and, in the case of liquids, it was immobilized in order to minimize leakage. The drums were then placed into shallow trenches and covered with dirt. Six low-level burial sites were in operation in

INTERNAL RADIATION SAFETY

597

the United States. In the 1970s, three of these sites were closed because of leakage of radioactivity into the groundwater. As a consequence, and to lessen the burden on the remaining burial sites, the U.S. Congress passed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. This act made each state responsible for the disposal of waste generated within its borders. However, the states were authorized to form compacts for the establishment and operation of regional facilities for the disposal of LLRW generated within the compact states. As of the middle of 2006, the ﬁrst LLRW burial site under the provisions of this act had yet to be identiﬁed. Currently (2007), there are three sites in the United States where LLRW is accepted for burial: Barnwell, South Carolina; Hanford, Washington; and Clive, Utah. When we deal with waste disposal, we mean that there is no expectation of ever recovering it. However, the waste disposal site is not abandoned but is kept under surveillance and governmental control for an appropriate period of time. The longterm surveillance and stringent attention to long-term safety is in accordance with the IAEA’s principle: “Radioactive waste shall be managed in such a way that will not impose undue burdens on future generations.” The objective of shallow land burial is to conﬁne the radioactivity and prevent it from reaching the biosphere for a long enough time that the radioactivity does not represent an unacceptable risk. The ﬁtness of a LLRW disposal site is therefore determined mainly by its hydrogeological characteristics as they relate to the prevention of migration of radioactivity outside of the site or the migration of radioactivity into the groundwater. Any activity that does migrate beyond the limits of the site should be of such low level that it will do no harm to humans or the environment. Because of the wide range of activity in radioactive waste, ranging from very large amounts from the nuclear fuel cycle (Table 11-6) to the very small amounts from scientiﬁc laboratories that use tracer quantities of radioisotopes, several basically

TABLE 11-6. Radioactive Wastes from the Fuel Cycle APPROXIMATE RADIOACTIVITY LEVEL TYPES OF WASTES AND PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS Mining and milling

Reﬁning Fuel fabrication Reactor operation

Chemical processing

a

222 Rn, 218 Po, 214 Bi, 214 Po

Gaseous: Liquid Solid: U, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 210 Pb

238 U, 234 Th, 234 Pa, 226 Ra

Liquid: Liquid Solid: U, Pu, Th

Gaseous: 13 N, 41 Ar, 89 Kr, 87 Kr, 138 Xe, 135 Xe Liquid Solid: 58 Co, 60 Co, 59 Fe, 51 Cr, 3 H 85 Kr, 133 Xe, 131 I, 129 I, 3 H

Gaseous: Liquid Solid: Fission products, Pu, Am, Cm

Ci/ton U

Bq/ton U

10−4 –10−3

4 × 106 –4 × 107

0.5–1

2 × 1010 –4 × 1010

10−4

10−3

4 × 106 –4 × 107

10−4 – 10−3

4 × 106 –4 × 107

10–100a

4 × 1011 –4 × 1012

50–100a

2 × 1012 –4×1012

–

7000b

26 × 1013

6,6000,000b

22 × 1016

At time of waste discharge or shipment based on fuel exposure of 20,000 Mwd/ton of U. from fuel at 20,000 Mwd/ton, 120 days cooled.

b Waste

Source: From ORNL Drawing 69–83 R2. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory; 1969.

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different methods are used in the management of radioactive waste. For very large amounts of radioactivity, the general principle is to concentrate and conﬁne the waste, whereas for very small amounts of radioactivity, the waste may be diluted and dispersed. For radionuclides with very short half-lives, the radioactive waste may be stored until the activity is essentially gone. The exact manner of waste management depends on scientiﬁc and engineering criteria and on sociopolitical considerations. Included in the ﬁrst set of criteria are the activity level and half-life of the waste, the physical quantity of the waste, the nonradioactive matrix in which the radioactivity is dispersed, and whether the waste is in solid, liquid, or gaseous form. The second set of criteria includes consideration of the NIMBY (“not in my back yard”) syndrome and the degree of public acceptance of scientiﬁcally based public policy decisions.

Mixed Waste Waste that contains “hazardous waste,” as deﬁned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR 261, subpart D, as well as radioactive waste is called mixed waste. Hazardous waste components are those that possess any one or more of the following characteristics:

r r r r

ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity.

A mixed waste often encountered by health physicists in research laboratories is scin- tillation ﬂuid such as benzene, toluene, or xylene containing ≥ 0.05 μCi 1850 Bq of 3 H or 14 C per gram of liquid. If the activity concentration of an organic liquid scintillation ﬂuid is 50

60–80

Cyclones, large diameter

>5

40–85

2000–3500 (entry)

0.5–2.5

Cyclones, small diameter Mechanical centrifugal collectors Bafﬂe chambers Spray washers

>5 >5 >5 >5

40–95 20–85 10–40 20–40

2500–3500 (entry) 2500–4000 1000–1500 200–500

2–4.5 — 0.5–1.0 0.1–0.2

Wet ﬁlters Packed towers

Cyclone scrubber

Inertial scrubbers, power-driven

Gases and 0.1–25 μm mists Gases and soluble particles >5 >5

8–10

0.2–0.5

90–99

100

1–5

90

200–500

1–10

40–85

2000–3500 (entry)

90–95

—

Venturi scrubber

>1

Viscous air conditioning ﬁlters Dry spun-glass ﬁlters

10–25 5

Packed beds of graded glass ﬁbers 1–20 μm 40 in. deep High-efﬁciency cellulose-asbestos ﬁlters All-glass web ﬁlters